Ch_322b_16.01

Ch_322b_16.01 - Chapter 16.1 lecture note

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Chapter 16 Aldehydes and Ketones I Nucleophilic Additions to the Carbonyl Group General Features of the Carbonyl Group The general structure of the carbonyl group is C = O R R' : In a molecular orbital description , the carbon and oxygen atoms are hybridized sp 2 . A sigma bond is formed from overlap of sp 2 atomic orbitals, and the ! -bond is formed from overlap of p-orbitals. C O R R' : : The total bond strength for the C=O bond is ~176-179 kcal/mol. ! " "
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The carbonyl is a polar covalent bond because of the difference in electronegativities between C and O: C = O R R' !" ! + μ = 2.3-2.8 D Aldehydes and Ketones The general structures of these two closely related classes of organic compounds are: C O = R H C O R R' aldehydes ketones where the R and R' could also be aryl groups. Note: Aldehydes have at least one H .
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Nomenclature of Aldehydes Common names are derived from the common names of the corresponding carboxylic acids by dropping the "ic acid" and adding "aldehyde." CH 3 COOH
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This note was uploaded on 10/20/2009 for the course CHEM 322BL at USC.

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Ch_322b_16.01 - Chapter 16.1 lecture note

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