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Unformatted text preview: Systematics and Taxonomy 1 BIOL 112 Systematics/Taxonomy Chapters 25–26 BIOL 112 Classification and Diversity Categorize living things into groups Why bother? Uses for systematics ! Aids understanding of structures and functions of components and organs ! Aids understanding of evolution and “family tree” of organisms: good systematics should reflect evolutionary history ! Aids rapid identification of relatives of previously unknown organism ! Provides a framework to learn (and remember) different types of organisms BIOL 112 Terms Taxonomy — science of naming organisms and groups of organisms Systematics — science of developing and evaluating classification schemes BIOL 112 Naming of Organisms Frog — Leopard Frog — Grass Frog? Use of common names gives problems: ! Language differences ! Different regional names How give an unambiguous, scientifically significant name to a particular creature? BIOL 112 Older Approach: Elaborate Descriptions Long descriptions in Latin Honeybee — Apis pubescens, thorace subgriseo, abdomine fusco, pedibus posticis glabris utrinque margine ciliatis Unwieldy system and too many words Needed innovation and reform BIOL 112 Carl von Linné (1707–1778 ) Carolus Linnaeus (latinized version of name) Son of Swedish clergyman, grew up poor; was thought to be stupid (because he was more interested in natural sciences than in the standard curriculum); nearly apprenticed to a shoemaker 1726 — went to University of Uppsala for medical training 1732 — sent by Academy of Sciences of Uppsala on collecting expedition to Lapland. Covered several hundred miles on foot, collecting botanical, geological and anthropological information about country and people (Sámi) Systematics and Taxonomy 2 BIOL 112 BIOL 112 1735 — received M.D. from University of Hardewyk (Holland) 1735 — Major scientific contribution first published, Systema Naturae; 10 th Edition (1758) is regarded as definitive edition 1741 — appointed Professor of Botany at U. of Uppsala; scientific work won him world-wide reputation 1761 — granted title of nobility by Swedish crown (allowed the addition of the “von” to his name) BIOL 112 Systema Naturae Organized all plants, animals and rocks into hierarchical scheme of nested categories Tenth Edition (1758) is regarded as most developed (“definitive”) version Established major innovations to the science of systematics, basic set of rules for organization and naming still used today (Linnaeus’ books originally kept away from young students — regarded as pornographic because of focus upon sexual life cycles as important identification characters.) (“The flowers’ leaves… serve as bridal beds which the Creator has so gloriously arranged, adorned with such noble bed curtains, and perfumed with so many soft scents that the bridegroom with his bride might there celebrate their nuptials with so much the greater solemnity…”) BIOL 112 BIOL 112 Linnaean Innovations Linnaean system of classification...
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