Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
The goals of psychologists are to describe behavior, predict behavior, understand/explain
and to modify/change.
Theoretical perspectives (5) of psychology include biological (hormones & genes),
learning (behavioral), cognitive (mental processes) and social cultural (society’s
Wilhelm Wundt is the father of scientific psychology, created the first psyc lab (1879).
Subfields of psychology include biopsychology, cognitive, developmental, social,
personality, clinical, counseling, industrial/organization, health and experimental.
Case studies are an in depth study of a single individual or organism. Ex “genie”
Pros: lots of info, ethical, generates hypothesis. Cons: inaccurate memory, lack of
Observational studies include Naturalistic Observation, Laboratory Observation and
Participant Observation. Each type of observation has its pros (controls) but each is open
Tests are used to measure/evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, abilities
and values. They are easy to replicate, valid, reliable but hard to construct good tests.
Surveys are a more direct approach, through interviews or questionnaires. They measure
attitudes, beliefs, opinion and intentions.
: 1 Who to survey (if they are a representative sample/random sample).
2 What to ask (can influence response, ignorance of language/word
Lots can be learned about people quickly. Poor question/sample can mean bias
Correlational Studies observe/measure 2 or more variables to find correlation.
Positive correlation as one variable increases the other variable increases, go in the same
direction. Ex +5G
Negative correlation one variables increases the other decreases, opposite direction. Ex
Strength is the magnitude of the relationship strong, moderate, weak or none.