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Research - All White Dudes Created Equal Undoubtedly the...

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“All White Dudes Created Equal” : Undoubtedly, the framers constructed a Constitution that embraced the Declaration of Independence’s fundamental principle that “all men are created equal.” But was the Constitution supposed to be read so literally and narrowly? Write an essay examining the efforts of underrepresented Americans—for this essay, blacks and women—to shatter the monopoly that adult white men had on the privileges and immunities afforded in the Constitution. How did court decisions shape blacks’ and women’s access to constitutional rights and protections in America? How did constitutional developments shape relations between men, blacks, and women? Two periods for Civil Rights Reconstruction 1950’s and 60’s pg. 61 (brown) for intro---federal gov’t abandoned civil rights RECONSTRUCTION 13, 14 , 15 th amendment (recon) Civil Rights Act 1866 (recon) Plessy (recon) Minor v Happersett (recon) 1950’s and 60’s Sweatt v. Painter 1950 Brown 1954 Civil Rights Act of 1964 ERA RECONSRUCTION Reconstruction Amendments 1865-1870 Thirteenth: 1865, abolishes slavery Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Fifteenth: 1870, cannot deny right to vote based on race, color, or prior slavery Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Fourteenth: 1868, The amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship , overruling Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) which had excluded slaves and their descendants from possessing Constitutional rights. The amendment requires states to provide equal
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protection under the law to all people within their jurisdictions and was used in the mid- 20th century to dismantle racial segregation in the United States . Citizenship Clause: makes blacks citizens, overturns Dred Scott DUE PROCESS CLAUSE: concept that government cannot infringe on any of the legal rights that are owed to a person according to the law of the land (life, liberty, or property) —gives individual right to enforce rights against all governments including states EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE: The Equal Protection Clause , part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , provides that "no state shall ... deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws". [1] The Equal Protection Clause can be seen as an attempt to secure the promise of the United States' professed commitment to the proposition that " all men are created equal " [2] by empowering the judiciary to enforce that principle against the states.
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