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doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0079 , 2819-2832 364 2009 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B Pavel Vopalensky and Zbynek Kozmik genetic components Eye evolution: common use and independent recruitment of Supplementary data ml http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/suppl/2009/08/21/364.1531.2819.DC1.ht "Data Supplement" References http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2819.full.html#ref-list-1 This article cites 160 articles, 67 of which can be accessed free Rapid response http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/letters/submit/royptb;364/1531/2819 Respond to this article Subject collections (1063 articles) evolution Articles on similar topics can be found in the following collections Email alerting service here right-hand corner of the article or click Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article - sign up in the box at the top http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/subscriptions go to: Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B To subscribe to This journal is © 2009 The Royal Society on 4 October 2009 rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org Downloaded from
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Review Eye evolution: common use and independent recruitment of genetic components Pavel Vopalensky and Zbynek Kozmik * Department of Transcriptional Regulation, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, Prague 4 CZ 14220, Czech Republic Animal eyes can vary in complexity ranging from a single photoreceptor cell shaded by a pigment cell to elaborate arrays of these basic units, which allow image formation in compound eyes of insects or camera-type eyes of vertebrates. The evolution of the eye requires involvement of several distinct components—photoreceptors, screening pigment and genes orchestrating their proper tem- poral and spatial organization. Analysis of particular genetic and biochemical components shows that many evolutionary processes have participated in eye evolution. Multiple examples of co-option of crystallins, G a protein subunits and screening pigments contrast with the conserved role of opsins and a set of transcription factors governing eye development in distantly related animal phyla. The direct regulation of essential photoreceptor genes by these factors suggests that this regulatory relationship might have been already established in the ancestral photoreceptor cell. Keywords: eye; evolution; crystallin; opsin; pigment; gene 1. INTRODUCTION Eyes of some sort occur in many animal phyla, but their anatomy, ontogenetic origin and degree of sophistication vary enormously ( Land & Nilsson 2002 ). For the purpose of this text, we use the minimal definition of an eye as a photoreceptor cell in the close vicinity of a screening pigment ( Arendt & Wittbrodt 2001 ; Land & Nilsson 2002 )—a situation found, for example, in Hesse eye cups of amphioxus ( Lacalli 2004 ). As these two components are formed by differ- ent genes and genetic pathways, which have different evolutionary histories, the evolution of an eye then becomes a question of evolutionary history of these separate components and their continuous or repeated integration to an organ called ‘eye’. The aim of this
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