Psych 150 - Lecture 17 - 3-14-2007

Psych 150 - Lecture 17 - 3-14-2007 - PSYCHOLOGY 150...

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PSYCHOLOGY 150 Professor Ozlem Ayduk 3/14/07 Lecture 17 ASUC Lecture Notes Online (formerly Black Lightning) is the only authorized note-taking service at UC Berkeley. Please do not share, copy or illegally distribute these notes. Our non-profit, student-run program depends on your individual subscription for its continued existence. These notes are copyrighted by the University of California and are for your personal use only. Sharing or copying these notes is illegal and could end note taking for this course LECTURE Operant Conditioning (Cont’d). I want to continue with our discussion of operant conditioning. “Operant” just means behavior in this context; the claim is that all learning starts from initially random behavior and sometimes the behaviors lead to a reward. If that happens the next time the organism is in that situation, there will be an increased likelihood that the behavior that was rewarded will take place. All learning takes place in situations. Positive and Negative Reinforcement. Reinforcement is anything that increases a behavior right before the behavior takes place. Food and sex are primary reinforcers, while money is a secondary reinforcer. Positive reinforcement increases the likelihood of a behavior through a reward. If I slow down and you smile, your smile is a positive reinforcer increasing the behavior that preceded it, namely, my slowing down. A negative reinforcer increases the likelihood of a behavior by removing something undesirable. So if you stop frowning after I slow down, you increase my slowing down behavior by removing the undesirable frowning. Positive and Negative Punishment. Punishment, which diminishes the likelihood of doing something, can be negative or positive. Positive punishment means we increase something negative, so we start frowning when I sing. You punish my singing behavior by doing something you weren’t doing before, so it is positive, in the sense of adding something. Negative punishment removes something desirable after a behavior. So I start singing and you stop smiling; it is negative in that you have subtracted something that was there before. You will be required to distinguish the different kinds of reinforcement and punishment on the exam. Successive Approximation. All learning, according to operant conditioning, starts with random behavior and the critical behavior gets rewarded. If I do something similar to the rewarding behavior, I may get a small reward; organisms can learn successive approximations of reward. So if we teach pigeons to press a lever and they get close to the lever, they can get a little food, so they progressively learn to touch the lever. All animal learning is based on successive approximations. The dolphins at Disney World are taught through successive approximation to engage in their behaviors. Intermittent Reinforcement. Intermittent
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Psych 150 - Lecture 17 - 3-14-2007 - PSYCHOLOGY 150...

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