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Chapter 1 Introduction to Management and Organization Case Applicationh Sweet Music Team-based exerciseh Characteristics of Good Managers Debate: Is Management a Science or an Art? Chapter 2 Management Yesterday and Today Case Applicationh Timbuk2 Designs Team-based exercise: How to Increase Efficiency and Effectiveness Chapter 3 Planning Section 1 Decision-Making: The Essence of the Manager's Job Case Applicationh C.F.Martin Guitar Company or Framing a Good Decision Team-based exercise: A Good/Bad Decision-making Experiences Section 2 Foundations of Planning Managerial Simulation: Develop Goals of a Project Chapter 4 Organizing Section 1 Organizational Structure and Design Case Application: In the Know Role-playing: Effective or Ineffective Delegating Chapter 5 Leading Section 1 Motivating Employees Case Application: Is This Any Way to Motivate Employees Section 2 Leadership Role-playing: A Effective Leader Chapter 6 Controlling Case Application: Niku Corporation I v
1 U " 0 1U " ~ v ~ v j p ^ v t ----0 -- * p C E C E C E ` C * \ * D * O * C E @ , @ C E " 7 @ * \ * O * , Sweet Music, Timbuk2 Designs, C.F.Martin Guitar Company, Framing a Good Decision, In the Know, Is This Any Way to Motivate Employees~a J v I v o eC -- v p nU " 1 U" "1 U "1 " 6 -- v p nU " 1 U" 1 U "` 1 ~ a . v I v o , ---- 3h 4a 5 i 0 0 A0 0 n U" / ~ v ~ v K p ^ v t h ~ v ~ v K p ^ v t h -- v p nU " 1 U" 1 U "` 1 U Characteristics of Good Managers, A Good/Bad Decision-making Experiences, Effective or Ineffective Delegating, h h ----0 -- v p nU " 1 U" 1U " , `1 U ~ a J v I v , ----U " 1U " "" 1 "U" P ~ v ~ v " 5i0 @ 0 A 0 U" U , ----1 -- v p C n" U" 1U " ` 1 U" ^ a~ J v I v o ^ v (A Effective Leader)h h ---- ""0 n " 0 5 "CEO"h I v ----@ 0 C 0 "n 0 -- * pnU " [ -- Ͼ v p nU " U" 1U " `1 U 1 ` J v 1 2 3O v C I " 0 h 10 h 6 h 3 ~ a J v I v "Is Management a Science or an Art?" I " "v 1 C " 0 1U " ~ v a " " 5 i0 0A 0 h 1 1 C E 1U " " " v ~ * ~ v K 0 A@ @ nU " Z h 2 1 C E 1U " ~ v ~ * ~ v K a 7 i0 0 0 h 3 1 C E 1U " ~ v 1 C E @ 1U " ~ v ~ h 4 1 C E 1U " ~ v ~ * ~ v K ~ * ~ v K h ~ v j 0n U " ~ v j p ^ v t -- v p nU" ~ v B p ^ v t 0n U " OE ~ v B v / ~ v B p ^ v t p ^ v t V p ^ v h p ^ v h p ^ v p ^ v p ^ v h h t t t t h t p ^ v t I." TeamBased Exercise 1 T i t l e : Is your college instructor a manager? Discuss in terms of Fayol's management
functions, Mintzberg's managerial roles, Katz's skills, the systems perspective, and the contingency perspective. T e a c h e r ' s A n a l y s i s (From Stephen P.Robbins)
A college instructor would generally not fall within the definition of a manager when utilizing Fayol's managerial functions. This is because the relationship between instructors and students. Students are not employees but, more appropriately, clients. In fact, in some cases, an instructor may have little say about the course content or how it is to be taught. In these instances, the instructor clearly makes few decisions. Regardless, college instructors, in their position as teacher (in contrast to a position such as department head) are not managers. In terms of Mintzberg's managerial roles, college instructors are perhaps involved in some ways in the interpersonal, informational, and decisional roles. For example, a college instructor could be seen as a liaison (interpersonal role), a monitor and disseminator (both informational roles), and a disturbance handler and negotiator (both decisional roles). Looking at Katz's skills, college instructors obviously need a lot of technical skills--in this case, knowledge about the latest research and conceptual developments in a particular discipline. They also need significant human skills as they deal with their students. To a limited extent, the instructor might need to utilize conceptual skills as courses are planned or discussed. From the systems perspective, the college instructor could be seen as responsible for coordinating the inputs (students, lecture material, classroom equipment, and so forth), processing them through some form of educational presentation (lecture, multimedia presentation, Internet-based instruction, and so forth), in order to produce outputs (student knowledge of a particular discipline, skills in a particular area, and so forth). Using the contingency perspective, the college instructor would have to look at the various situational variables (who is in class on a particular day, the arrangement of the classroom, available material or equipment, and so forth) in order to most effectively and efficiently do his or her job. Student's Analysis
M a n a g e m e n t I s s u e : Is your course instructor a manager? R o b b i n s ' V i e w p o i n t : The course instructor is not a manager. The teacher is a worker while the students are a kind of clients. O u r V i e w p o i n t : The course instructor is a manager in China. Our Statements: At first we want to point out that Robbins and us analyze this problem in different background.Most of American schools are privately run and there has president, vice present, headmaster, teachers, students and so on. However, in China, almost all the schools are public owned. So we haven't anybody who can make profit through the school. To the contrast, the main objective of Chinese schools is not to make profit but cultivate talents to serve our country. Also, we don't think the client presented in the standard answer is appropriately used here. Because in traditional business way, client is defined as the person who uses money to buy specific commodities or service, they don't have the responsibility to cooperate with the teacher and finish the work or assignment they are told to. So, from this point we can see the distinct difference between the student and client. Anyway we admit that receiving knowledge in school is also a kind of enjoying service, but after the service, we are not the socalled clients any more but product, because we have received something different, and we are changed by it. So, the students are definitely not client. Consequently, we will support our statements from the definition of management, managerial functions, managerial roles, skills, the system perspective, and the contingency perspective. What is organization and what is manager? According to Robbins, organization is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose while manager is someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals. As for our parts, the teacher should be the manager, and teachers and students compose an organization. This organization has a define purpose and it contains more than 2 persons, so management is needed here. The teachers take charge in this system, they plan, organize, lead and control, and they cooperate with the students to achieve the goal--to make the students assimilate the knowledge. Firstly, we will discuss this problem in the terms of managerial functions with example of our Ms Yu. In the first chapter, Ms Yu wanted to give us an introduction of management, in order to achieve this goal; Ms Yu developed a series of plans and also made PowerPoint to help our understanding. The process of this preparation matches the definition of planning. And in the class and after class, Ms Yu would give us some problems to discuss and solve. We can regard these problems as teaching tasks. And she should decide that how the tasks are grouped, the final decision would be reported to whom, this work is a kind of organizing. Then as a teacher, one of the most important things is to motivate students' spirit so that we can grasp the content in the class such as question--answer, doing presentation, etc. when Ms Yu did this, which means she is implementing leading function. Furthermore, after the work being done, Ms Yu would compare our answers with the standard answer, if we made some mistakes during the procession; she assumes the responsibility to correct us. This matches the features of controlling function. Then we will discuss about the managerial roles. As a manager, the teacher should take the roles as interpersonal, informational and decisional. The most important role a teacher plays may be the informational ones. The reality of a teacher's work is to transmit the knowledge to her students and make sure they can assimilate it. So the teacher's job is much like the disseminator and the monitor in Mintzberg's managerial roles. And the necessary roles a teacher should play are the interpersonal ones. Teaching is not equal to giving information, is should also include cooperating with them, taking care of their academy works as well as their mental health. Here a teacher may be the manager who plays the interpersonal roles. The teacher should also plays the decisional roles; she should decide which part of the course is more important and how to be taught in details. Thirdly, in the terms of managerial skills: any instructor should have basically knowledge and proficiency in certain specialized in order to be a qualified teacher, such as math, English sociology and so on. That is technical skills. As for human skills, during the teaching process, a instructor, no doubt that a instructor may involve to deal with the students and other level mangers or operatives directly or indirectly, so that a instructor can communicate, motivate, lead, and inspire enthusiasm and trust. That is the human skills. In order to make his students to adapt to the society, to meet the society requirements, to be more competitive, any responsible instructor should see, the class that is an organization as a whole, understand the relationships among various different organizations, and visualize the class fits into its broader environment and the development of the society. That is the conceptual skills. . Fourthly, In the terms of systems perspective: we can consider the class as a system .The students who just step into the campus, the teaching equipments, teaching faculty, the money put into the teaching process, the collected information related to a certain major are, to some extent, inputs. While after the hard working of instructors' management measures and nonmanagerial activities, the cooperation between the students and instructors, etc, the inputs are transformed into the outputs. Also during this course, students become professionals and can devote his knowledge, skills, and ideology to serving the society. The instructors can boost his teaching level and some other staffs in this organization become more and more mature and experienced. Even to the universities especially the private universities, they can gain fruitful financial revenue. There are kinds of outputs. During the dynamic course, in order to make the students adapt to the society more flexibly, to ensure all the staffs to coordinate to the reform and changes of the environments and teaching, to make all the members in the systems to be more qualified, some feedbacks are essential and some modulations are necessary and vital to the systems. Consequently, the whole teaching process become interactive, dynamic, circulated, which certainly is an open system. In addition, from Contingency Perspective; we hold that teacher is a manager from the following five aspects. 1- organizations are different (the size of class; the tape of class is different) 2- facing different circumstances or contingencies (social-need is changing; education system is reforming; equipment is improving and the character, philosophy and interest of students are various) 3- requiring different ways of managing (debate, argument, discussion, other method) (Different languages, various communicated ways) 4- contingency variable (in different time to take different measures) (in different place to take different measures) 5- the primary value -stresses (there are no simplistic or universal rules, every class has different rules and the rules is changing as the changing of the environment) Due to the evidences above, we can get enough reasons to evident our opinion. Different ways of managing are required in different organizations and different circumstances and the teacher use this perspective so skillfully and correctly, so we get the result. There is no doubt that our course instructor is a manager. TeamBased Exercise 2 This exercise asks students, in small groups, to develop a list of characteristics that make individuals good managers. Then for each characteristic, the students are to identify which management function it falls under. Before the in-class group activity, have each student identify three managers they have worked with (this could be a current or previous boss, a family member they have watched closely, or even themselves in managerial roles). Then for each of the three managers, have the student identify a minimum of three characteristics that made the individual a good manager and at least one characteristic that needed changing. Then have the students identify the management function each good characteristic and each "bad" characteristic falls under. Have the students bring these lists to class to work with in a group. In the group setting, have the students compile a comprehensive list of "good" manager characteristics and a list of "bad" manager characteristics. Also, have them identify the management function of each characteristic. When all of the group-compiled lists are completed, have the students make a prediction on what management function will be identified the most often and which function will be identified the least. Finally, going around the room, share group results, and see if management function predictions were correct. II.X v Case Framing a Good Decision The frames aren't just around the artwork anymore at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City. As the museum began a major remodeling and expansion construction project, the wisdom of that decision was raising questions. MoMA (www.moma.org), a not-for-profit educational institution, is supported by admission and membership fees, sales of publications and services, and of course, contributions from wealthy donors. It was founded in 1929 by three private citizens who were determined to make modern and contemporary art available to the public. MoMA was the first museum to devote its art program and collection entirely to the modern movement. And the quality and diversity of the museum's current collection offers visitors a unique and unparalleled overview of modern and contemporary art. Early in the 1990s, museum director Glenn Lowry and museum trustees decided that MoMA should not be "a shrine to the twentieth century but rather a vital, forward-looking institution committed to the art of the present as well as to the great achievements of the modern tradition." With this guiding philosophy, the decision was made to expand the museum's facilities and radically alter its exhibit space. Their rationale was that the museum needed more and better-designed space to accommodate its various existing functions as well as new and different space to meet the challenges of the future and to better articulate its programs devoted to education about and celebration of modern art. To accomplish these lofty goals, MoMA's decision makers directed that the planned expansion and renovation result in a building that would showcase the best of modern art in the most compelling way possible, respect the work of a diverse professional staff, and make judicious use of the institution's resources, both in the long run and in day-to-day operations. They wanted a building that would be both an example of great architecture and a great museum as well. With the completion of the new space in late 2004 or early 2005, they hoped to attract a million more visitors, or 2.5 million total, annually. Fulfilling this dream wouldn't be easy. Since the decision to expand was made in the early 1990s, costs of everything from real estate to construction have skyrocketed. (Costs for the entire project are estimated at $650 million.) Since MoMA's endowment is relatively small (a mere $387 million as compared to the Metropolitan Museum of Art's endowment of more than $1 billion), managers have had to look for alternatives. One decision they made was to pursue a for-profit joint business venture ----a Web site selling everything from coffee cups to furniture----with the Tate Gallery in London. Some people felt that the move demeaned the integrity of the museum and created controversy among staffers, an allegation that MoMA officials, of course, denied. And then there's MoMA's relationship with its "trustees"----individuals who donate large sums of money and are "rewarded" with a seat on the prestigious museum board. To fund the expansion, museum officials have sought contributions from current and potential trustees, a common practice for not-for-profit organizations during a major fund-raising campaign. Despite the concerns, MoMA does have a solid financial history and had a budget surplus for five years in the last years of the 1990s. However, wealthy donors will be paying off their pledges for years and if the museum needs additional cash for any reason, it's not going to have many places to turn. The construction project itself has turned out to be more complicated than originally planned. When the project was first proposed, its cost was a modest $200 million for about 30 percent more space, and the museum itself was expected to remain open throughout the entire process (estimated to be about 18 months). However, initial blueprints were quickly shoved aside for more aggressive plans. The architectural design by influential Japanese architect Yoshio Taniguchi increases the museum space by 50 percent and is slated to take 48 months to complete. Rather than staying open throughout the process, managers decided to temporarily transfer a major portion of the museum's operations to a former Swingline stapler factory in Queens. Being in a section of the city not considered as glamorous as its midtown location, attendance (and revenues) could suffer, and after completion, there's no guarantee that the new facility will attract the hoped-for additional visitors. Concerns about the viability of the proposed project led MoMA's managers to cut some costs ----$50 million from the architects' budget and by using lesser-quality construction materials. However, Director Lowry says that MoMA is not taking on too much with this expansion. His goal unapologetically remains, "To be the No.1 modern museum in the world." Sources: Information from MoMA's Web site (www.moma.org), August 28,2000; and D.
Costello, "Museum of Modern Art's Ambitious Expansion Plan Faces Trouble," Wall Street Journal, June 7, 2000, pp. B1+. QUESTIONS 1. What types of problems and decisions do you see MoMA managers dealing with in this story? Explain your choices. 2. Explain how each of the following might have been used in the decisions that had to be made in pursuing the museum expansion: (a) perfectly rational decision making, (b) boundedly rational decision making, (c) intuition.
3. Would you characterize the conditions surrounding MoMA's expansion decision as conditions of certainty, risk, or uncertainty? Explain your choice. ANSWERS 1. What types of problems and decisions do you see MOMA managers dealing with in this story? Explain your choices. The problems that the managers are dealing with in this story have characteristics of poorly structured ones. They're poorly structured in that the problems are new or unusual and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete. The museum personnel have not undergone a project of the size and complexity such as this expansion. And even just since beginning the project, many previously agreed-upon aspects of the project, that is, architectural design and construction costs, have changed dramatically. Because the problems are poorly structured, managers have to use nonprogrammed decisions. How might each of the following be used in the decisions that had to be made in pursuing the museum expansion: (a) perfectly rational decision making; (b) boundedly rational decision making; and (c) intuition? Perfectly rational decision making might be used as the company decided on quantifiable problems that had a limited number of possible outcomes, such as what admission price to charge after the museum reopens with its expanded space. Boundedly rational 2. decision making might best be used as managers made construction, relocation, or funding procurement decisions. Intuitive decision making might best be used as the company's decision makers decided on a whether or not the museum clientele will support a museum whose stated mission is "To be the No. 1 modern museum in the world." 3. Would you characterize the decision conditions surrounding MOMA's expansion decision as certainty, risk, or uncertainty? Explain your choice. The decision conditions surrounding the MOMA expansion are best characterized as uncertainty. In other words, the managers face decision-making situations where the choice of alternatives is influenced by the limited amount of information available. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2009 for the course FSD 6789 taught by Professor Vinh during the Spring '09 term at ITT Tech Flint.
- Spring '09