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Prelim2ReviewGuide - Study Guide to help you prepare for...

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Prelim #2 covers from Deuterostomes (chp 18, pp 384-395), Genetics (chps 8 & 9) and Evolution up through Oct 30 th Refer to the Lecture Notes & ppt slides (use text book the review Introductory Chapter Essays & as a reference book). Notes and ppt slides are available on Blackboard. Exam Coverage Includes the following… I . READ ALL the assigned Introductory Chapter Essays You WILL be given one intro essay question/chapter. II. Review Questions organized by lecture topic (chp) Chp 18 lecture topics ~ 1. Taxonomic groups covered on this exam include [know major traits and phylogenetic relationships among the following]~ Animalia True Tissues (derived trait) Bilateral Symmetry (derived trait) Deuterostomes Echinodermata Chordata [traits of chordates include?] Tunicates and Lancets Craniates Hagfish Vertebrates Lampreys [how do they differ from other fish?] Jawed Vertebrates (derived trait) Chondrichthyes [can they “breath” if they don’t swim? Why or why not?] Osteichthyes [ why is an operculum important to this group?] Ray-finned Fishes Fleshy-finned Fishes Coelacanths Internal Nostrils (derived trait) Lungfishes Tetrapoda 1
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Tetrapoda (four limbs) [key traits] Amphibia (frogs, salamanders, caecilians) Amniota (lay shelled eggs) Mammalia (hair) Reptilia (scaly skin, many lay eggs) Chelonia (turtles) Lepidosauria (lizards and snakes) Archosauria (dinosaurs etc.) Crocodylia (crocs) Aves (birds) [key traits & what they share w/other reptiles]. I. Jawed Vertebrates with gills and paired fins (commonly called fishes) - Chondrichthyans 1. Sharks and rays 2. Flexible skeleton made of cartilage 3. Lateral line system: row of sensory organs running along each side that are sensitive to changes in water pressure and can detect minor vibrations caused by animals swimming nearby. - Ray-finned Fishes o Familiar tuna, trout, goldfish o Skeleton reinforced with a hard matrix of calcium phosphate o Operculum: covers a chamber housing the gills. Allows fish to breathe without swimming o Swim bladder: gas filled sac that helps keep them buoyant. - Lobe-fins o Series of rod shaped bones in their muscular pectoral and pelvic fins o During the Devonian, may have used lobed fins to “walk” underwater o Three lineages of lobe-fish survive: coelacanth, lungfish, terrestrial vertebrates. II. Amphibians were the first tetrapods(“four feet” air breathing relatives of early lung fishes developed skeleton reinforced appendages and gave rise to the first tetrapods. – vertebrates with two pair of limbs. - Amphibians – salamanders, frogs, caecilians o Amphibios – “living a double life” o Frogs spends most of time on land but lays eggs in water o Toads don’t live a double life. -
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Prelim2ReviewGuide - Study Guide to help you prepare for...

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