Running head: HEART FAILURE 1 Madeline Fitzpatrick Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing Practice Western Governors University
HEART FAILURE 2 Heart Failure Investigated Disease Process Heart failure is a very serious medical condition. This disease is chronic and can be very progressive. Heart failure occurs when the heart can’t pump enough oxygen and blood to support the other organs (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). In other words, this disease can’t keep up with the body’s workload (American Heart Association, n.d.). In the United States, about 6.5 million adults have heart failure (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). There are about 960,000 new heart failure diagnoses every year (Heart Failure Society of America, n.d.). Heart failure is accountable for about 8.5 percent of deaths in United States (Heart Failure Society of America, n.d.). The American Heart Association is predicting in 2030, the number of people diagnosed with heart failure is going to increase by 46 percent, which would be more than 8 million people in the United States (American Heart Association, 2017). As years go by, more and more people are being affected by heart failure. Pathophysiology As mentioned earlier, heart failure is a very serious, chronic disease. In 2017, heart failure was the contributing cause of 1 in 8 deaths (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). Some of the risk factors that can contribute to developing heart failure include obesity, alcohol use, sleep apnea, irregular heartbeats, tobacco use, high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain medications (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). There are many risk factors that go hand in hand with other medical conditions that affect heart failure. There are several different medical conditions that can lead to heart failure which include coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, previous heart attack, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, diabetes, severe forms of anemia, and emphysema
HEART FAILURE 3 (American Heart Association, n.d.). It is scary to see there are so many different risk factors and other conditions that lead to heart failure. Once diagnosed with this disease, there is no reversing it, only managing it. The heart consists of four chambers which include right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle (Huether & McCance, 2019). Depleted oxygen blood is received by the right atrium and pumps it into the lungs to become oxygenated (Huether & McCance, 2019). The rich oxygen blood returns to the heart through the left atrium and is pumped to the rest of the body (Huether & McCance, 2019). The main pumping chambers of your heart, which are the ventricles, may not fill properly in between beats and may become stiff with people with heart failure (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). As time goes on, the heart can’t keep up with the normal demands of pumping blood to the rest of the body (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). In some cases, the heart muscle may become damaged and weakened to the point of where the ventricles stretch and the heart can’t pump blood efficiently (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). The ejection fraction of the heart is an important
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