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LEC 05 CHAP 12 - Lecture 5 Phase Diagrams and their...

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TOUPADAKIS Lecture Slide 1 of 35 Lecture 5 Phase Diagrams and their Features. The Phase Diagrams of H 2 O and CO 2 . Types of Structures. Crystal Structure. Seven Crystal Systems or Shapes of Unit Cells. Cubic Unit Cell. Three Forms of Cubic Unit Cell. Occupancy. The Crystal Structure of Sodium Chloride. Atomic Radii from Crystal Structures. Types of Crystalline Solids and Bonding. Lattice energy.
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TOUPADAKIS Lecture Slide 2 of 35 Phase Diagrams A Phase Diagram is a plot showing the effects of external pressure and temperature on the physical state of a substance.
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TOUPADAKIS Lecture Slide 3 of 35 Features of a Phase Diagram (1) The pressure shown in the phase diagram is either the pressure generated by the system itself or the external pressure applied to the system. Vapor-Pressure Curve of the solid: represents the equilibrium between the solid and gas phase. Generally as temperature increases, the vapor- pressure of the solid increases. Vapor-Pressure Curve of the liquid: represents the equilibrium between the liquid and gas phase. Generally as temperature increases, the vapor- pressure of the liquid increases. Melting Point Curve of the solid : represents the equilibrium between the solid and liquid phase. If the solid is more dense than the liquid (carbon dioxide), then as the external pressure increases, the melting point increases and the solid phase is favored. If the solid is less dense than the liquid (water), then as the external pressure increases, the melting point decreases and the liquid phase is favored.
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TOUPADAKIS Lecture Slide 4 of 35 Features of a Phase Diagram (2) Triple Point: temperature and external pressure at which all three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) of a substance are in equilibrium.
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