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BIEB132_L7_DeepSea

BIEB132_L7_DeepSea - The Deep Sea and Hydrothermal Vents...

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The Deep Sea and Hydrothermal Vents BIEB 132: Lecture 7, 10/15/09 I. What is the deep sea? II. Exploring the deep sea III. Food availability at the sea floor IV. Physiological and biochemical adaptations V. The hadal zone (depths > 6000 m) VI. Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps Reading: Levinton Chapter 16 I. What is the deep sea? A. Depths beyond the continental shelf (> 200 m) – 98% of volume of Earth’s biosphere B. Pelagic zones 1. Epipelagic – < 200 m 2. Mesopelagic – 200–1000 m 3. Bathypelagic > 1000 m – 79% of volume of Earth’s biosphere C. Benthic zones 1. Bathyal – along continental slope (200–4000 m) 2. Abyssal – along continental rise and abyssal plain (4000–6000 m) 3. Hadal – in deep sea trenches (> 6000 m) Figure 1.13: Zonation in ocean D. Environmental conditions 1. Temperature decreases in top 1000 m, thereafter 2–5˚C 2. Pressure – increases 1 atmosphere/10 m 3. Salinity – little change in salinity with depth 4. Oxygen – minimum at 500 m (oxygen minimum zone) 5. Sunlight decreases exponentially with depth, none > 1000 m 6. Food limited – supply comes from the surface Figure 2.18 Temperature profile, Figure 2.12 Sunlight profile, Figure 2.11 Oxygen profile II.Exploring the deep sea A. Technology 1. Research vessels a) Platforms for instrument deployment, floating laboratories, state-of-art electronics, navigation and communications equipment Deep sea p. 1 of 8
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b) Ships operated by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS, NSF), Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) Figures: R/V Sproul (125 ft), R/V Roger Revelle (273 ft), R/V Seward Johnson (200 ft) 2. Manned submersibles, HOVs ( H uman O ccupied V ehicle s ) a) Alvin (4500 m, 3 people), Johnson-Sea-Link (1000 m, 5 inch thick acrylic sphere) Figures: HOVs: (A) Alvin, (B) Mir I and II (6000 m), (C) Cyana (3000 m), (D) Nautile (6000 m), (E) Pisces IV (2000 ,m), (F) Shinkai 6500 (6500), (top) Alvin, (bottom) Johnson-Sea-Link 3. Unmanned submersibles, ROVs ( R emotely O perated V ehicle s ) Figures: (A) ROPOS (5000 m), (B) Victor (6000 m), (C) Jason I (6000 m), (D) Jason II (6500 m) 4. Deployed instruments a) Profilers – “CTD” (conductivity, temperature, depth), chlorophyll fluorescence, oxygen, nutrients, light intensity, light attenuation, bioluminescence, bottles for water sampling b) Landers – autonomous platforms that are retrievable, camera and other equipment c) Traps – attract and collect animals Figures: (top) Small CTD rosette, Large CTD rosette, (bottom) Lander, Benthic trap, Hyperbaric fish trap 5. Animal collection a) Bongo or vertical net tows – zooplankton, small nekton b) Trawl nets – midwater animals c) Epibenthic sled – animals living on bottom d) Boxcore – animals in top layer of sediment e) Bottom dredge – scoops up sample of bottom sediment Figures: Bongo netsIsaacs Kidd midwater trawl, Tucker trawl, Epibenthic sled, Boxcore, Bottom dredge 6. Ocean observatories – suite of moored and autonomous sensors, 24/7 data collection Figure 1.8 MARS ocean observatory in Monterey Bay, 52 km long cable to canyon B. First manned exploration of the deep sea 1. Bathysphere – 1.5 m diameter, 2.5 cm thick, 8 cm thick quartz windows, lowered by cable 2.
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