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Unformatted text preview: SUMMARY OF PROOFS OF OPENNESS, CLOSEDNESS AND COMPACTNESS MING LI Consider the metric space ( X,d ). Definition 1: A set A X is said to be open , if for any x A , there exists r > 0, such that the open ball B ( x,r ) A . Definition 21: A set A X is said to be closed , if A c is open. Definition 22: A set A X is said to be closed , if it contains all its limit points. Theorem 1: Definitions 21 and 22 are equivalent. Definition 3: A set A X is said to be bounded , if there exists R > 0, such that A B (0 ,R ). Definition 41: A set A X is said to be compact , if every open cover of A has a finite subcover. Definition 42: A set A X is said to be compact , if every infinite subset of A has a limit point in A . Definition 43: Definition 4: A set A X is said to be compact ,if every sequence in A has a convergent subsequence with its limit in A . Theorem 2: Definitions (41), (42) and (43) are equivalent. Theorem 3: A compact set is closed. Theorem 4 (HeineBorel): Suppose A is a subset of the Euclidean space R k . Then A is compact if and only if A is closed and bounded. Theorem 5: Closed subsets of compact sets are compact. Remarks: 1. All definitions above depend on both the space and the metric. For example in the definition of openness, open ball B ( x,r ) is defined as B ( x,r ) = { y X : d ( x,y ) < r } . Limit points must be in the space X . 2. All theorems above apply to any metric space except Theorem 4, which is only true for R k ....
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2009 for the course ECG 765 taught by Professor Fackler during the Fall '07 term at N.C. State.
 Fall '07
 FACKLER

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