Energy balance_011 - Energy balance & body composition...

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Energy balance & body composition Chapter 8
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Energy balance
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Stored energy 1 pound of body fat stores ~3,500kcal Even healthy-weight adult has 50,000 200,000 kcal stored Weight gained/lost usually 75% fat, 25% lean tissue
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Appetite Sensations of hunger, satiation, and satiety Prompts individual to eat or not to eat
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Hunger influenced by… Presence or absence of nutrients in bloodstream Customary eating patterns Climate Exercise Hormones Illness (physical or mental)
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Satiation Satisfaction & fullness that occurs during meal and halts eating Determines how much food is consumed during meal
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Factors other than hunger affect intake Boredom Anxiety Time of day Availability of food Sight/smell of food Taste Portion size
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Sustaining satiation/satiety Food composition affects satiation Protein High-fiber foods Fat provides little satiation until it reaches small intestine
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Influence of fat on portion size
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“Control Center” Hypothalamus Many chemicals in brain involved in appetite control and energy balance Ex: neuropeptide Y Causes CHO cravings, initiates eating, lowers energy expenditure, increases fat storage
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Total energy expenditure Basal metabolism Physical activity Food consumption (Adaptation)
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Basal metabolism ~2/3 of energy expenditure Energy needed to maintain life when body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest
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Physical activity Most variable & changeable aspect of energy expenditure Energy needed for activity depends on: Muscle mass Body weight Activity
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Thermic effect of food ~10% of energy expenditure Energy expended during: GI tract muscle activity Manufacture and secretion of digestive juices Absorption via active transport Varies by food composition, meal size & frequency
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digestion/absorption Carbohydrates: 5-10% Protein: 20-30% Fat: 0-5% Alcohol: 15-20%
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Energy balance_011 - Energy balance & body composition...

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