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final_study_guide_summer_2009 - MCDB 101B Study Guide...

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MCDB 101B Study Guide Summer 2009 1 Basic Mendelian Genetics Law of Segregation Monohybrid cross Law of Independent Assortment Dihybrid cross Product and Sum Rules of Probabilities Dominant vs. Recessive Alleles Pedigree Analysis application of mendelian rules to human inheritance Extensions to Mendel Allelic interactions for a single gene Incomplete dominance Codominance Lethal alleles - recessive or dominant Multiple allelic series Pleiotropic alleles Two Gene Interactions Four distinct phenotypes 9:3:3:1 Complementary gene interaction – 9:7 Epistasis Recessive 9:3:4 Dominant I – 12:3:1 Dominant II – 13:3 Biochemical models suggested by gene interactions Conditional alleles – temperature sensitive Dominant negative, haploinsufficiency, ectopic alleles Chromosome theory of inheritance Chromosomes – karyotype and topology Mitosis and Cell cycle Meiosis Overall chromosome pattern Relationship to mendelian laws Prophase I – leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, diakinesis How does meiosis create genetic diversity? Sex determination and linkage meiotic nondisjunction Chromosome Structure Chromatin components DNA and Histones Nucleosomes Centromeres and Telomeres Chromatin Packing euchromation heterochromatin – constitutive or facultative Linkage, recombination and genetic maps Exception to law of independent assortment Linkage analysis dihybrid or trihybrid testcrosses X-linked traits – male progeny Identify chromosomal conformation of heterozygous parent Score parental and recombinant classes in progeny Obs RF is never more than 50% Chi square analysis is used to determine if deviations from random assortment are significant 3-point Genetic Maps Trihybrid testcross o 8 different classes of progeny o 2 parental, 4 SCO, 2 DCO o Are all 3 genes linked to each other?
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