MCDB_101B_Study_Guide_for_Midterm_2

MCDB_101B_Study_Guide_for_Midterm_2 - MCDB 101B Study Guide...

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MCDB 101B Study Guide for Midterm 2 – Summer 2009 Chromosome Structure (Chapter 13) Euchromatin and heterochromatin Nucleosomes – Histones H2A,H2B, H3, H4, H1 H1 special histone not part of core. Higher packing levels of chromatin packaging 30 nm solenoid, radial loops, nuclear scaffold, SAR DNA regions. Chromosome banding patterns are conserved = chromosome synteny. Three Essential elements of eukaryotic chromosomes. 1. Origin of replications 2. Telomeres – solves two critical problems. a. Shortening of DNA ends during replication. b. Special structures protect ends of chromosomes from repair mechanisms. TRF2, T-loops and D-loops. 3. Centromeres – critical for equal segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Kinetochore binding region hold sister chromosomes. In yeast, identity is determined by specific sequence motifs. In mammals, the centromere is localized by an epigenetic mark which is replacement of H3 with CENP-A in specialized nucleosomes. Chromatin packaging and gene activation.
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2009 for the course MCDB 101B taught by Professor Christofferson during the Summer '09 term at UCSB.

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MCDB_101B_Study_Guide_for_Midterm_2 - MCDB 101B Study Guide...

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