MCDB101Bslideset4

MCDB101Bslideset4 - 133 Chromosomes (Chpt. 13) Chromatin...

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1 Chromosomes (Chpt. 13) • Chromatin – DNA, histone proteins, nonhistone proteins – Single DNA strand per chromatid – Histones – 5 basic proteins – Nonhistones – heterogeneous collection of 1000s of different proteins • Nucleosome – fundamental unit of chromosomal packing – Tight association of DNA and protein octomer core consisting of 2 @ H2A, H2B, H3, H4 – ~160 bases around core with ~40 bases of linker DNA before next nucleosome – H1 histone interacts with DNA outside the core octomer 133 Co In E Nonhistone Proteins 13.2 Nuclear Scaffold Kinetochore Protein (CENP-E) 134 Co In E
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2 13.3 135 Co In E 13.4 136 Co In E
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3 Radial Loop-scaffold model – experimental evidence 13.5 EM of metaphase chromosome with histones extracted DNA is spread on flat surface – only loops observed 137 Co In E Chromosome Banding 13.6 Banding patterns are highly reproducible. Intrinsic property of each specific chromosome region. Must be determined by the DNA sequence. 138 Co In E
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4 Specialized chromosomal elements ensure accurate replication and segregation of chromosomes • There are many origins of replication on @ chromosome • Replication occurs in about 8 hours during S phase in actively dividing human cells • DNA polymerase can assemble new DNA at a rate of about 50 nucleotides per second • In mammals, there are 10,000 origins of replication • Each bidirectional replication is called a replicon • Origins of replication are scattered throughout the
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2009 for the course MCDB 101B taught by Professor Christofferson during the Summer '09 term at UCSB.

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MCDB101Bslideset4 - 133 Chromosomes (Chpt. 13) Chromatin...

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