The Stroganov Chronicle.

The Stroganov Chronicle. - WORKS ISSUED BY THE HAKLUYT...

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Unformatted text preview: WORKS ISSUED BY THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY YERMAK’S CAMPAIGN IN SIBERIA SECOND SERIES NO. I46 ISSUED FOR I974 THE STROGANOV CHRONICLE according to the Spasskiy manuscript‘ On the taking of the Siberian land, how to the Pious Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia,2 God granted the Siberian state for the sovereign to rule over, and granted that he should defeat the Sultan of Sibir’, Kuchyum son of Murtaza3 and capture alive his son, the khan’s heir Mametkul, and how God enlightened that Siberian land by holy baptism and by the holy churches of God and established in it a bishop’s throne for an archiepiscopacy. [1] News came to the hearing of the Pious Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, concerning the frequent warlike incursions of infidels from the Siberian peoples into the sover— eign’s land of Perm', and how the godless ones by their incursion had brought much captivity and desolation on the sovereign’s cities and settlements and villages of the land of Perm’. God inspired the Pious Sovereign, the Tsar, to question the men of his state who had knowledge concerning that land. The sovereign ordered that Yakov and Grigorey Stroganov should be brought before him, and he questioned them how the land of Perm’ might be protected from attack by the Siberian peoples and by what means restraint could be exercised on Sultan Kuchyum. They related everything in detail to the sovereign, and their words were pleasing to the sovereign. He granted them his favour and commanded that they should be given according to their wishes what was needed, howsoever the land of Perm’ might be protected by them from the Siberian peoples. He commanded concerning this that in all matters the sovereign’s charters should be granted to them for trade among the Siberian peoples and the peoples of other hordes and lands. 1 The text translated is printed in Sibz'rskz'ye Zetopz'sz', 1907, pp. 1—46. The manu— script is now held at the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library in Leningrad (accession no. 13 for 1930), and was originally written some time between 1621 and 1673 (see Introduction, pp. 24—5). 2 The tsar during all this period (though he died in 1584, before the final outcome was clear) was Ivan IV, known as Groznyy. The epithet is commonly translated as ‘The Terrible’, but might be more accurately rendered as ‘The Awe—Inspiring’,‘ it was not pejorative. 3 The form given is Murtazeliyev. The Yesipov chronicle has MartaZeyev. Kuchum’s father’s name was certainly Murtaza, perhaps Murtaza Ali, which could lead to Murtazeliyev. 35 [2] On the establishment of the stronghold of Kankor on the Pyskorskiy headland, where was the monastery of our All— Merciful Saviour, called Pyskor. In the year 7066 [1558] on the 4th day of AprilI the Pious Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, granted Grigorey son of Anika Stroganov the empty lands below Great Perm’ for 88 versts down the river Kama, along its right bank from the mouth of the stream Lysva, and along the left bank below the Pyznovskaya backwaters, along both banks of the Kama to the river Chyusovaya. In those regions where Grigorey Stroganov might choose a strong and well guarded place, we have commanded him to establish a stronghold and build fortresses and to appoint by his own authority cannoneers and fortress gunners and musketeers and artillery-menZ for defence against the Siberian peoples and the Nagay peoples and the peoples of other hordes.3 We have also commanded this same Grigorey to recruit freely to himself those who are untaxed and unregistered in those lands.4 The sovereign’s charter for the township of Kankors was granted with the subscript6 of the secretary Petr Danilov. It was decreed by the courtiers7 Fedor Ivanovich Umnoy and Aleksey Fedorovich Adashev and the treasurer Fedor Ivanovich Sukin and Khozyain Yur’yevich Tyutin. The secretary Tret’yak Karacharov signed the decree.8 [3] On the establishment of another stronghold on the Orlovskiy water meadow, called Kergedan, but now called Orlov. In the year 7072 [1564], on the 2nd of Ianuary, the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, granted to Grigorey son of Onika Stroganov a grant charter in the same lands as he had granted him before this, decreeing that he should choose a place on the Orlovskiy water meadow, twenty versts below the previous township 1 The year was reckoned from the creation of the world, which was believed to be in 5508 B.c. 5 508 years should therefore be deducted to give the modern date; but for days between I September and 31 December, 5509 must be deducted, because the new year began on I September. Days and months are Old Style. By our present calendar, all the dates given in these chronicles would be IO days later; this would be 14 April. 2 Russ. vorotm'ki, which normally means gatekeepers, but in the specialised usage of the documents of this kind and period, means persons serving artillery detachments (Porokhova, 1969, p. 127). The list already contains gunners (pushkari), and the distinction between the two is not clear. 3 See Introduction, pp. 20—4. A horde (Russ. orda) was not only the people (who might or might not be an ethnic unit), but also the territory they occupied. 4 Russ. ma tyaglyye i ne pismyannyye. These are categories of peasant, and the meaning is that Grigoriy Stroganov should collect the unattached peasants, who had no doubt run away from their masters into this frontier area. 5 On the Kama, near modern Solikamsk, some 200 km upstream from Perm’. For this and other place-names, see Map I, facing p. 18. 6 Russ. pripis’, meaning something added in writing, probably more than a signature (which the word can mean); perhaps like the end of the next chapter. 7 Russ. okolm'ch’i, a rank at court, the next below boyar. 3 The full text of this charter is given on pp. 281—4. 36 of Kankor. To Grigorey it was also enjoined that he should by his own authority establish walls of thirty sazhens,I and on the side of access from below he should wall up the place with stone in the clay, and should by his own authority appoint musketeers and guards in that stronghold and maintain rapid—firing artillery in both of those strongholds ; he should cause to be made cannons, muskets, fortress guns and hand—guns by the services of an unrecorded gunsmith of those whom Grigorey should hire for himself, and Grigorey should maintain that artillery with himself. The sovereign’s charter for that stronghold was granted ; the subscript to the charter was by the sovereign’s great secretary Yuriy Bashanin: the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia ; in another place was the subscript of Senya Nepein: by the decree of the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia; in a third place was the subscript of Kozma Romantsov: it was decreed according to the word of the Tsar and Great Prince by the treasurer Nikita Afonas’yevich Funikov, according to the memorandum with the subscript of the secretary Ivan Bulgakov.z [4] On the establishment of the Chyusovaya strongholds. In the year 7076 [1568] on the 25th of March the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, granted Yakov son of Onika Stroganov a charter from the mouth of the river Chyusovaya upstream on both sides and to the height of the land and to the head— waters of the stream. In those lands from the Kama upstream along the Chyusovaya for eighty versts on the right and the left side he was to establish strongholds for fortification and defence against the Siberian and the Nagay people and other hordes, and to cause to be made for the strongholds rapid—firing artillery, cannons and fortress guns and hand- guns, and all necessary fortifications, and he was to recruit men to those strongholds freely and to maintain them there, cannoneers and fortress gunners and musketeers and guards and artillery—men.3 The sovereign’s charter was granted with the subscript of the secretary, Druzhina Volodimerov.4 I A sazhen’ is a measure of distance generally translated as fathom. On land it was normally 2134 m (three arshins), at sea 1-83 m, or equal to the English fathom. Thirty sazhens would therefore be about 64 m, and so presumably the length of one side of the defensive square. 2 The full text of this charter has not been located. 3 The exact whereabouts of these strongholds is not now known in all cases. Besides Kankor and Kergedan, there were Yayvenskiy Gorodok and Nizhne— Chusov)skiy Gorodok, on the Yayva and Chusovaya (Bakhrushin, 1955, pp. 99—100 . 4 The full text of this charter is given on pp. 284—7. 37 YERMAK’S CAMPAIGN [5] On the establishment of the Sylva and Yayva forts, how they were established against the advances of the Siberian and Nagay peoples. In the year 7078 [1570], according to the command of the Pious Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, in order to prevent the Siberian and Nagay peoples from crossing the rivers, so that they should not have a way to the sovereign’s towns of Perm’, and in order to contain the Sylva and Iren Tatars and Ostyaks and the Chyusovaya and Yayva and Inva and Kosva Voguls, Yakov Stroganov established forts above the Sylva and above the Yayva rivers, and appointed in those forts rapid-firing artillery and cannons and fortress guns and muskets and hand—guns, and cannoneers and fortress gunners and musketeers and artillery—men. [6] On the killing of Russian trading men and fishermen by the Cheremis and the Bashkirs. In the year 7080 [1572] on the 15th of July, by divine dispensation, the Cheremis came to the river Kama and they incited to come with them a great number of Ostyaks and Bashkirs and Buintsy.I Near the previously mentioned strongholds of Kankor and Kergedan they killed Russian trading men, 87 in number. Concerning this the Pious Sover— eign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, sent his royal charter, with the subscript of the secretary Kirey Gorin, to Yakov and to Grigorey Stroganov. He commanded that they should gather their men and send them out from the strongholds after those who were traitors to him, the sovereign, of the Cheremis, the Ostyaks, the Bashkirs and the Buintsy.2 So they, Yakov and Grigorey, selected a leader in their strongholds and gave him fighting men, cossacks and volunteers from among their men, and sent them after them, against the traitors to the sovereign, who had proved treacherous to the sovereign. Those who were sent out killed some of the accursed pagans and captured others alive and brought all of these to take an oath that they would be true to the sovereign in all things and be subject to him and give taxes to the sovereign and stand for the sovereign against the enemies who opposed the sovereign, without treachery. They seized hostages from among them and sent them to their strongholds and to Perm’ to the sovereign’s voyevodas. ‘ See section on non-Russian peoples in the Introduction. It is not clear, however, who the Buintsy were; but there are two modern towns called Buinsk. both near the Volga below Kazan’, so the Buintsy were perhaps, like the, Cheremis and the Chuvash, subjects of the khanate. 2 This sentence gives the gist of the charter of 6 August 1572 (see pp. 288—9). THE STROGANOV CHRONICLE [7] On the coming of the khan’s heir Mametkul, son of the Siberian Sultan Kuchyum, to the river Chyusovaya and on the capture of Russians. In the year 7081 [1573] on the 20th of July, sacred to the memory of the holy prophet Elias, Mametkul, son of Khan Kuchyum,I the Siberian sultan, came out of the Siberian land from the river Tobol to the river Chyusovaya to make war, having prepared himself with his murzas2 and princes, to spy out roads by which he could go to war against the strongholds of Yakov and Grigorey Stroganov and against Perm’ the Great. On his advance they killed many Ostyak subjects and took their wives and children into captivity. They killed the sovereign’s envoy, Tret’yak Chebukov, and all the Tatars serving with him, who were going with him to Kazan’ against the Kazan’ Horde, and took others into captivity. He did not go up to the Chyusovaya strongholds, halting five versts off, since the Russian prisoners told him that there was a multitude of fighting men in the strongholds and that they were waiting for him to come upon them. He was alarmed by that and turned back. But Yakov and Grigorey did not dare to send their hired cossacks from the strongholds after the Siberian forces without the sovereign’s com- mand. Even before this the Siberian sultan with his army had killed the Ostyak subjects, Chagir’ with his comrades, and had taken into captivity others who lived near the Chyusovaya strongholds. Concerning that Yakov and Grigorey wrote to Moscow to the Pious Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil'yevich of all Russia, requesting that the sovereign should make them a grant and should order them to pursue them without penalty and avenge the injuries done to them. For that the sovereign made a grant to Yakov and Grigorey and ordered that his sovereign’s charter should be given to them, decreeing for them that in the Siberian land beyond the Yugrian range in Tagchei3 and on the river Tobol and on the Irtysh and on the Ob’ and on other rivers, where it was useful for protection and as rest-houses for the volunteers, they should build forts and keep fire-arms and gunners and musketeers and guards against the Siberian and Nagay people and against other hordes. They should put up buildings near the fortresses, at fishing places 1 Most scholars today believe Alliy (Ali) was Kuchum’s son and Mametkul (Mahmet—Kul) was his nephew. As Muller (1750, p. 173) notes, Mametkul later became a military leader in the service of Boris Godunov, and is referred to as Mametkul Altaulovich. Thus he could be neither Kuchum’s son nor brother (Kuchum’s father being Murtaza), but Altaul might have been Kuchum’s brother. Kuchum’s title in the Russian is sometimes tsar (as here), but also khan or sultan. To avoid possible confusion, the word tsar has been used in these translations only for the tsar of Moscow. For the same reason Mametkul’s title tsarevich is translated here as khan’s heir. 2 Tatar nobles. 3 Also Takhchei. A rather vague term apparently signifying the Tura basin (Bakhrushin, 1955, p. 142). The Yugrian range (Russ. Yugorskiy kamen’) was the ordinary phrase for the Urals. 39 and at plough-lands, on both sides of the river Tobol and along rivers and lakes and up to the headwaters and should be strongly fortified with all necessary fortifications. Whichever Ostyaks and Voguls and Yugrians abandoned the Siberian sultan, and would be under his sovereign’s hand, and would give tribute to the sovereign, these men they should send with tribute to Moscow and pay the tribute in to the sovereign’s treasury, and Yakov and Grigorey should protect in their strongholds those tributary Ostyaks and Voguls and Yugrians and their wives and children from the advance of the fighting men of Sibir’. And Yakov and Grigorey should assemble volunteers and their own men and the Ostyaks ‘and Voguls and Yugrians and Samoyeds, together with the hired cossacks and the artillery, and should send them to wage war on the Siberian sultan and to make the Siberians prisoner and to bring them to give tribute for the sovereign. If there should come to those fortresses to Yakov and Grigorey merchants from Bukhara and the Kazakh Horde and other lands with any merchandise, they should trade freely with them without duty. The sovereign’s charter for those lands in the Siberian border country beyond the Yugrian range, for Tagchei and for the Tobol and for the Irtysh and along the Ob’ for the fortress lands, was granted in the year 7082 [1574], on the 30th of May, with the subscript of the secretary Petr Grigor’yev.I [8] On the summoning of the Volga atamarzs and cossacks, Yermak son of Timofey and his comrades, from the great river Volga to the Chyusovaya strongholds to give aid against the un— believers. In the year 7087 [1579] on the 6th of April, Semen and Maksim and Nikita Stroganov heard these reports from trustworthy men concerning the daring and bravery of the Volga cossacks and alamans, Yermak son of Timofey and his comrades, how on the Volga crossings they Were killing the Nagay and despoiling and killing the Ardobazartsy.z Having heard this concerning their daring and bravery, they sent some of their men with a letter and with many gifts to them, inviting them to come to them at their ancestral estates in the Chyusovaya strongholds and in the forts to give them aid. The cossacks greatly rejoiced at this, that messen— gers had come to them from honourable men and summoned them to give them help. Thereupon the aramans and cossacks, Yermak son of Timofey and his comrades, Ivan Koltso, Yakov Mikhaylov, Nikita Pan 1 The whole of this chapter is a not very exact summary of the charter of this date (see pp. 289—92). 2 Also Ordobazartsy. The meaning is not altogether clear; perhaps a composite and pejorative term meaning ‘members of hordes and inhabitants of bazaars’. The chronicler, being a Stroganov man, is polite about Yermak’s former occu— pation. N o doubt his band were despoiling and killing anyone with worthwhile spoils, whether they were Tatars or not. 40 V 11111 bLKUUflNUV bl‘lKUNlbLh and Matfey Meshcheryak,I assembled with their faithful and excellent company, 540 men in number, and soon set out to their lands. [9] On the coming of the Volga atamam and cossacks, Yermak son of Timofey and his comrades, to the Chyusovaya strongholds. In the same year on the 28th of June, sacred to the memory of Cyrus and John, the miracle-working and selfless saints,‘ the aramam and cossacks, Yermak son of Timofey Povolskoyz and his comrades, came from the Volga to the Chyusovaya strongholds. And they, Semen and Maksim and Nikita Stroganov, received them with honour and gave them many gifts and provided food and drink in abundance for the1: enjoyment. The atamans and cossacks stood against the godless infidels, daring and united, together with the men liVing there in the strongholds, and they fought the godless infidels fiercely and unmerc1fully and stood firm and spurred themselves on against the unbelievers. Those aramans and cossacks lived in their strongholds for two years and about two months. [10] On the coming of the Voguls up to the Chyusovaya strongholds and up to the Sylva fort to make war. In the year 7089 [1581], on the 22nd of July, the malicious Devil, who from time immemorial has hated good done to the human race, incited the evil and godless Vogul murza, Begbeliy Agtakov, With his Vogul and Ostyak company, which numbered 680 men. They came up to the Chyusovaya strongholds and up to the Sylva fort, unnoticed and by stealth, and laid waste and burnt down the villages and-hamlets of those living around there, and took many people into‘captiVity, men, women and children. But merciful God did not permit the accursed ones to succeed. The Russian troops soon achieved a victory over those godless men, coming from their strongholds, and seized many near the strong- holds, and killed many at the crossings according to those reports. They ' , I These four comrades were the sotm'ks (commanders of 100) in Yefim%lils army. If total numbers are correct, each somya was rather over-strefigfit. Pare family names may indicate non-RusSian background in some caselsVi i1 iha "k sounds Polish, but he might have been Ukrainian, and Matfey hesock eryfie might have been a member of the Turkic1sed Finnic people on t e a, Mzele/ikegnai‘ng from the Volga. The epithet here seems to be midway betweentg descriptive adjective and a family name —— a common way for farm y name‘sase arise. Although the family name does 'not seem to have survwed jdm acrkilyt the Yermak, as far as we know, had no children — it links up with the 1 (La, amid— correct family name was Alenin (see Introduction, p. 11), for Yermah s fired at father (according to that idea) was Afonasiy Grigor erich Alenin, w o i ’ Povol’sko . Ygrgfi‘slgilgmyan, IYIagarenes: the descendants of .Hagar and her. son IIshngireé who ‘dwelt in the wilderness of Paran’ (Genem, xx1, 21). In Russian t e \IN 1 came to mean Moslems. The word used more frequently in these chronic es s busurmany, also translated as infidels. 41 seized many others and captured alive their murza, Begbeliy Agtakov. Those godless men, seeing their own exhaustion, since God had granted Victory over them to the sovereign, on this account gave their submission and admitted their fault, undertaking that they would pay tribute to the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, and would not go to war against the Russian land. [I I] On the sending of the Volga atamans and cossacks, Yermak son of Timofey and his comrades, and of the troops of the Stroganovs to Sibir’ against the Siberian sultan. In the year 7090 [I 58 I] on the first of September, sacred to the memory of our holy father St Simeon Stylites, Semen and Maksim and Nikita Stroganov sent from their strongholds the Volga atamans and cossacks, Yermak son of Timofey and his comrades, to Sibir’ against the Siberian sultan. Together with them they had assembled from their strongholds their troops, men of Lithuania, foreigners,I Tatars and Russians, daring, brave and valiant soldiers, three hundred in number. They sent them out together with the Volga atamans and cossacks, and from them they formed that gathering of eight hundred and forty daring and brave men.2 Assembling together they offered up hymns of prayer to all- merciful God, glorified in the Trinity, and to his most pure Mother, Mother of God, and to all the powers of heaven and to His holy saints. They paid them a satisfactory reward, attired them in clothing and supplied them with fire-arms, cannons and rapid-firing guns and seven- span muskets and many provisions and all these things in sufficiency. They gave them guides, who knew that road to Sibir’, and interpreters of the infidel language, and sent them in peace to the Siberian land. Those htamans and cossacks together with the hired troops advanced gladly into the Siberian land against the Siberian sultan, with their formation of companies, appointed for clearing the country of Sibir’, to make clean the land and to drive out the godless barbarian. The atamans and cossacks went for four days up the river Chyusovaya to the mouth of the river Serebryanaya, and along the 'river Serebryanaya for two days. Yermak came to the Siberian road, and there they built a stronghold fortified with walls of earth, naming it Yermak’s stronghold Kokuy.3 1 Russ. mamas lit. dumb meaning then an western E came to mean dermal. , y uropean. The word later 2 The chromcles disagree aboutnumbers in Yermak’s army (see Introduction, p. 13).. Most. scholars go along With the figure 540, but Vvedenskiy (1962, pp. 98—9) is inclined to think the 300 men who joined on the Chusovaya an over- statement, for there were not too many available males on the Stroganov estates at that time. 3 This camp was evidently still in existence at the time of G F M" . . . _ . . uller the historian who published in 1750 (Muller, 1937, p. 220 — this information was not printed in the first edition). The Koku is a trib t serebryanaya. y u ary of the Serebryanka, or 42 From that place he crossed I7 verstsI across the portage to the river called Zharavlya, and they went down that river and came out on the river Tura. Here was the Siberian land. [12] On the coming of the Siberian troops of the prince of Pelym to the towns of Perm’ and to Kankor and to Kergedan and to the Chyusovaya strongholds and up to the Sylva and Yayva forts. At the same time in the year 7090 [1581], and on the day sacred to the memory of our holy father St Simeon Stylites, the impious and godless prince of Pelym was filled with great fury.2 Still more was he possessed by wild ferocity, and plotted evil trickery in his heart. He began to con— trive deception with cunning, but it all resulted for the godless man in his own destruction. Then that impious prince assembled his troops, who numbered 700 men, and called to his aid the daring, brave and powerful murzas and princes of the Siberian land together with a great number of troops. That evil man by compulsion also took with him a great number of the Sylva, Kosva, Iren, Inva and Obva Tatars and Ostyaks and Voguls and Votyaks and Bashkirs. He advanced with his troops, unleashing his fury against the towns round Perm’, against Cherdyn’. They captured those places and burnt them down. He came up even to the walls of the city, with much violence and ferocity ap— proaching the city, which narrowly escaped being captured. But almighty God did not permit the accursed ones to succeed. They soon left that place and advanced up to the stronghold of Kay and there did great damage. From there the accursed ones advanced to Kam’skoye Usol’ye,3 and there burnt down the villages and town settlements and captured the inhabitants. They advanced to the strongholds of Kankor and Kergedan, and from there they advanced to the Chyusovaya strongholds and to the Sylva and Yayva forts. Suddenly the accursed ones fell upon the Chyusovaya strongholds and cut down a great number of the Christians living around there and burnt down their villages and dwellings. They savagely took captive the Orthodox Christians, with many captured and made prisoner. The Volga atamans and cossacks were not there in the strongholds. Before the coming of that accursed and godless prince of 1 The Russian term used is paprishche, which has designated, like the English league, several different measures of length: equivalence to two-thirds, one, one and a half, four and twenty versts are all found (Porokhova, 1969, p. 178; H. G. Lunt, Concise dictionary of old Russian (Munich, 1970), sub naming). The verst also varied in length, and at this time was equal to 1000 sazhens or 2-13 km (Bakhrushin, 1955, p. 99). The distance from Moscow to the land of Sibir’ is given in chapter 1 of the Yesipov chronicle as nearly 2000 poprishche; in order for this distance not to be grossly exaggerated — it is about 1400 km as the crow flies, and perhaps twice that much by water — the smallest value of paprishche, two— thirds of a verst, seems likeliest here. So 25 poprishche equal 17 versts. 2 The prince of Pelym was a Vogul Chieftain, who was a thorn in the Russian flesh for another decade. Probably identifiable with Begbeliy Agtakov of chapter 10. 2 Now Solikamsk, ‘the salt works on the Kama’. 43 YERMAK’S CAMPAIGN Pelym, in the same year, Semen and Maksim and MikitaI sent them to the Siberian land against the Siberian sultan. The men who remained behind in their strongholds and forts narrowly escaped death at the hands of the accursed and godless Tatars, from their evil harass- ment, being saved not by their own strength, but by the help of God. Thenceforth they suffered many afflictions and harassments from the accursed ones. But Semen and Maksim and Mikita together with their valiant and brave men summoned to their aid all-merciful God, glorified in the Trinity, and his most pure Mother, Mother of God, and all His saints. Even more they advanced against the enemy, and valiantly and with one accord stood firm amid this great harassment by the accursed ones. They fought strongly and valiantly with the accursed ones, and a great number fell on both sides. The accursed ones learnt that Russian troops had gone to war against their Siberian land, and were alarmed at this. And so, by the help of God, the accursed barbarians were defeated, and their Russian prisoners were released. Those godless ones withdrew, covered in shame, like curs, to their own lands. Concerning that attack of the prince of Pelym, the voyevoda Vasiley PelepelitsynZ wrote from Cherdyn’ to the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, advising that the enemy had made war on the land of Perm’, and set fire to the villages and church buildings and town settle— ments ; that Semen and Maksim and Mikita Stroganov did not give help to the sovereign’s tOWnS and did not send their men to give aid, and did not dispatch the Volga atamans and cossacks, Yermak son of Timofey and his comrades, to him to give aid. Concerning that there was sent from Moscow to the Chyusovaya stronghold to them, Semen3 and Maksim and Mikita Stroganov, a decree of the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, with the subscript of the secretary Andrey Shchelkalov, on the 6th of November4 of the year 7091 [1582]. In the sovereign’s decree it was written: Vasiley Pelepelitsyn has written to us from Perm’ that you have sent out from your forts the Volga atamans and cossacks, Yermak with his comrades, to make war on the Votyaks and the Voguls and the Tatars and the lands of Pelym and Sibir’ in the year 7091 [1582] on the 1st day of September; that on the same day the prince of Pelym assembled with his Siberian troops and Voguls and went to war against our lands of Perm’, attacked the town of Cherdyn’ and the fort and killed our men and caused grievous harm to 1 The usual form is Nikita, but in this chronicle Mikita is used almost as frequently. 1 A secretary (d’yala) in the tsar’s service. Before becoming voyevoda at Cherdyn’ in 1580 he had held other high administrative positions. 3 The original of this charter (see p. 293) does not mention Semen. For the possibly rather considerable significance of this evident insertion, see Intro— duction, p. 25. Much of the rest of the charter, it will be noticed, is reasonably accurately copied. 4 The chronicler is confused. The date of the charter was 16 November 1582, as he writes correctly some lines lower. But there had been another charter, also addressed to the Stroganovs, and on generally related matters, on 6 November 1581 (see pp. 292—3). 44 THE STROGANOV CHRONICLE our people. And this was done through your treachery. You have estranged the Voguls and Votyaks and the Pelym people from our favour and provoked them and gone to war against them. By this provocation you have made mischief between the Siberian sultan and us, and by calling in the Volga atamans you have hired robbers to serve in your forts without our permission. These atamans and cossacks before this brought us into conflict with the Nagay Horde, they killed Nagay envoys on the Volga crossings, and robbed and killed Ardobazartsy, and many robberies and losses were inflicted on our people. They could have redeemed their guilt by guarding our land of Perm’, but they acted in concert with you since they have committed acts and robberies such as they did on the Volga. On the day when the Voguls marched on Cherdyn in Perm’, on that same day Yermak and his comrades set out from your forts and went to make war on the Voguls, the Ostyaks and the Tatars, and gave no aid whatsoever to Perm’. We have sent to Perm’I Voin Anichkov, and have commanded that those cossacks, Yermak With his comrades, should be taken and brought to Perm’ and to Usol’ye Kamskoye, and we have commanded that they should stay there, separately, and that you should under no circumstances keep cossacks With you. If until their return you cannot remain in the fort, retain a few men, up to a hundred with an ataman, and send away all the rest to Cherdyn’ without fail immediately. But if you do not send out of your forts the Volga cossacks, the ataman Yermak son of Timofey and his comrades, and keep them with you, and do not defend the lands of Perm’, and if by that treachery of yours any harm comes henceforth to the lands of Perm’ at the hands of the Voguls and the men of Pelym and the troops of the Siberian sultan, then you will fall into our great dis— favour, and the atamans and cossacks who have obeyed you and served you and betrayed our land, we shall order to be hanged. And youshould without fail send those cossacks away from you to Perm’. Written in Moscow, in the year 7091 [1582] on the 16th day of November.I After this Semen and Maksim and Nikita were greatly distressed that pre— viously it was the command of the Sovereign, the Tsar'and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, according to his prev1ous charters that they should establish strongholds and hire troops against the Siberian sultan, but now the sovereign’s decree was that it was commanded not to send out the Volga atamans and cossacks. But their cossacks, Yermak and his comrades, had been sent out to Sibir’. 1 The full text is given on pp. 293—4. It is interesting that of all the charters summarised in this chronicle, this one, _a broadSide directed-at the Stroganovs, is given at greatest length. Perhaps this is to bring out the pomt that later events showed the Stroganovs to have been fully justified. 45 [13] On the coming of the Volga cossacks and atamans, Yermak and his comrades, to the river Tavda in the Siberian land. In the year 7090 [1 58 1] on the 9th of September, sacred to the memory of the ancestors of our Lord, Joachim and. Anna, the warriors came unflinching to that land of Sibir’ and waged war on many Tatar strong- holds and encampments down the valley of the Tura. They came in all their valour to the river Tavda, and at the mouth of that river they cap- tured some Tatars. There was one of them, Tauzak by name, who was of the khan’s court, and who told them everything in order concerning the Siberian khans and rulers, murzas and princes, and concerning Khan Kuchyum. They had reliable intelligence from him concerning every- thing and let him go to tell Sultan Kuchyum of their arrival and of their valour and bravery. From this Tauzak Khan Kuchyum heard of the coming of the Russian troops and. of their valour and bravery. They also told him: ‘The Russian troops are so powerful: when they shoot from their bows, then there is a flash of fire and a great smoke issues and there is a loud report like thunder in the sky. One does not see arrows coming out of them. They inflict wounds and injure fatally, and it is impossible to shield oneself from them by any trappings of war. Our scale—armOur, armour of plates and rings, cuirasses and chain—mail do not hold them; they pierce all of them right through.’ Khan Kuchyum was very greatly disturbed and distressed concerning this, and moreover was in great perplexity. He sent orders throughout all his realm to the cities and encampments for men to come to his aid and to take up arms against the powerful Russian troops. In a short time there assembled before him all the great number of his troops, the native rulers, murzas and princes, the Tatars, Ostyaks and Voguls and all the other tribes under his rule. [14] On the khans and princes of that Siberian land, how and from where they originated. There was in the Siberian land on the river Ishim a certain khan of the law of Mohammed, Ivan by name, a Tatar by birth. There arose against him a Tatar from the common people of his realm, Chingis by name, who came upon him like a robber, calling up others like himself, and slew him, and himselfbecame khan. A certain man of the servants of Khan Ivan saved his son, the khan’s heir Taybuga, from Chingis’ slaughter. After some years Chingis learnt concerning Taybuga that he was the son of Khan Ivan, whom he had slain and. whose khanate he had seized. He bestowed great honour on him and gave him the title of Prince Taybuga and. commanded others to call him by this title. After this Taybuga began to ask that he should be sent out on a campaign. Chingis assembled an army for him and sent him out. He came to the river called the Irtish, where the Chud’I lived, and then by his power ‘ A general term meaning non—Russian tribes found in the northern regions. See Introduction, p. 22. 46 made subject to himself many peoples living along the river Irtish and the great Ob’, after which he returned home. After being with Chingis a short time, he again began to ask him to send him out. Chingis sent him out, saying that he could remain wherever he wished. Coming to the river Tura he established a city and called it Chingiy, where now is the Christian city called Tyumen’. After him there reigned in that city his son Khodzha. After Khodzha there reigned his son Mar, and this Mar was married to the sister of Upak, the Khan of Kazan’.I This Upak killed his brother-in-law Mar and had possession of that city many years. After this Mamet, the son of Ader, killed Khan Upak. The children of Mar were Ader and Yabolak, and the son of Ader was Mamet. This Mamet killed Khan Upak and. established a city above the river Irtish and named it Sibir’, and. reigned in that city.Z After him Agash, the son of Yabolak, reigned. After him Kazy, the son of Mamet, reigned, and after him his children Yetiger and Bekbulat. Khan Kuchyum son of Murtaza together with many troops came against them out of the steppe from the wild country. Kuchyum killed Yetiger and. Bekbulat and from then onwards called himself Khan of Sibir’. The son of Bekbulat was Seydek, whom they took away to Bukhara at an early age. Khan Kuchyum had two sons, one called Mametkul and the second called Alliy.3 [15] On the sending by Khan Kuchyum of his son Mametkul to battle with the Russian troops. The ungodly Khan Kuchyum sent out his son Mametkul with a number of his troops, and commanded them to take up arms manftu against those Russian troops who had come against them. Kuchyum himself ordered a barricade4 to be built for him by the side of the river Irtish, at Chyuvashiye,5 and to be heaped up with earth. They strength- ened it with many fortifications and, to describe it briefly, it was suitable for fortification. Mametkul with many of his troops advanced to a I Howorth (1876—88, p. 1062) identifies Upak with Ibak, who had relations, both friendly and unfriendly, with Ivan III of Moscow. He died in 1493 or soon after. But the index of Sibirskiye letopisi (1907) disagrees. 2 The town of Sibir’, as it concerns us for the rest of the chronicles, was about 20 km above the site later chosen for Tobol’sk, on the Irtysh, at a point originally called Kashlyk by the Ostyaks and Voguls, but called Isker by the Tatars. The word Sibir’, which refers to the region as well as the town, has been derived in various ways. The most plausible is that it is Turco—Tatar, and comes from the Mongol word shibir meaning a dense forest on a marsh (Vasmer, Russiches etymologisches Wé'rterbuch, sub nominee). See also p. 64, note 1. 3 This genealogy is similar to that in the Yesipov chronicle, chapters 2—5. Here the head of the line of khans is ludicrously called Ivan, while Yesipov calls him On. But he was probably not a historical character in any case. 4Russ. zaseka, a defensive work made of felled trees, with the branches pointing towards the enemy. The most exact rendering would be abatis, but this word is hardly current now. But see also Remezov chronicle, chapter 42, and note. 5 Also Chyuvashevo (or Chuvashevo). Now called Mys Podchevash (Oklad— nikov, 1968, p. 28), a headland on the Irtysh near Tobol’sk. 47 certain natural boundary, which is named Babasan. The Russian troops, the azamans and cossacks, seeing such a gathering of the pagans, were not in the least alarmed at it, and placed their hope in God. They ad- vanced swiftly from their forts and fell upon the pagans. The pagans on horseback made a strong and ruthless attack on their assailants, and inflicted many wounds on the cossacks by spear thrusts and sharp arrows. The Russian troops began to fire from their muskets, their rapid-firing small cannons, their small-shot guns, their fortress guns, their Spanish guns and arquebuses, and with these they killed countless numbers of the pagans. There was at that time a fierce battle with the Tatar troops and those who fell on both sides were very many in number. The pagans saw many of their troops fall in action against the Russian troops and gave themselves up to flight. The Russian cossacks again proceeded along the river Tobol and came up to a mountain. The pagans began to shoot at them from the mountain, and their arrows fell from above on the Russians’ boats like rain. But the Russians passed by these places, unharmed in any way by the Tatars. [16] On the coming of the Russian army to the encampment of Karacha, the councillor of the khan. The cossacks came up to the encampment of Karacha and there waged a second battle with Karacha, the councillor of the khan.I They cap- tured his encampment and in it the khan’s mead and the khan’s wealth, which they took to their boats. The pagans overtook them near the river Irtish, some on horseback and others on foot. The azamcms and cossacks fought a battle with them there on the bank and manfully attacked the pagans. There was at that time a great battle waged to the death on both sides. Then the pagans saw many of their men falling in action against the Russian troops and gave themselves up to headlong flight. In that battle few of the Russian troops in Yermak’s company were killed; but every one of them was wounded. Khan Kuchyum seeing that his troops were defeated went out with many of his men and took his stand on a high place on the mountain called Chyuvashevo. His son Mametkul remained at the barricade with many troops. Meanwhile the cossacks proceeded up the river Irtish. [17] On the capture of the stronghold of Atik murza. The Russian army came up to the stronghold of Atik murza,Z cap- tured it and settled down in it. Already night had come and darkness had I Russ. karach means minister or high official, from the Uighur karachu (Vasmer, sub naming). This no doubt led Lantzeff and Pierce (1973, p. 98) to follow Bakhrushin (in Muller, 1937, p. 487) in thinking that Karacha was the rank and not the name. But this is not necessarily so. English is not the only language to have family names like King and Prince. 2 Evidently a minor chief, probably Tatar but possibly Vogul. 48 descended, and the cossacks having seen such a great gathering of the pagans at the barricade were alarmed at it and said among themselves: ‘How can we stand against such a great gathering?’ They began to deliberate among themselves, forming an assembly, and they took good counsel concerning this and said one to another: ‘Should we leave this place, or stand fast?’ Some began to reflect and to say: ‘It would be better for us if we went away from them in retreat.’ Others spoke sternly and firmly against them. ‘0 like—minded brothers, where can we flee to, since autumn has already come upon us and ice is freezing over the rivers? Let us not give ourselves up to flight and bring such ill repute upon ourselves, nor have such censure put on ourselves. But let us place our hope in God. For not from many troops does victory come, but help is given from God above. For God can help even the helpless. We have ourselves heard, brothers, how much evil those godless and accursed infidels of the Siberian land and Sultan Kuchyum did, how they brought desolation on our sovereign’s towns in our Russian land of Perm’, how they brought death and much captivity on the Orthodox Christians and how much harm they did to the Stroganovs’ forts. Because of this almighty God is bringing vengeance on these accursed men for this Christian blood. Let us remember, brothers, our promise, how we gave our word and our vows to honourable men before God, and how we pledged ourselves by kissing the cross, so far as almighty God should grant to aid us, on no account to flee, although death should come on all to the last man. We cannot go back because of the disgrace and because it would violate our word, which we pledged on oath. If almighty God, glorified in the Trinity, aids us, then even after our death our memory will not fade in these lands and our fame will be eternal.’ After this the azamcms and cossacks all took heart and their courage was reaflirmed and they pledged themselves to the last man, all saying with one accord: ‘Together we are ready to die for the holy churches of God and to suffer for the true Orthodox faith. We shall serve the Pious Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, and we shall stand firm against the pagans until blood is shed and until death itself comes. And so, brothers, we shall not betray our vow and shall with one accord stand firm in that resolve.’ To all of them this good counsel commended itself. As night had already passed and day was dawning and the sun had shone out, the clouds were illuminated with brilliant light. Yermak was greatly concerned about his affairs and said to his company with tears: ‘0 friends and brothers, let us pray to God and to His most pure Mother, Mother of God, and to all the heavenly powers and to His saints, that we may be saved from the attacks of our ungodly and ac— cursed enemies.’ They came out of the stronghold to battle on the 23rd of October, sacred to the memory of the holy apostle James, the brother of our Lord. They proclaimed all together as if with one voice: ‘God is with us!’ And again: ‘0 Lord, help us Your servants!’ They began to make an advance on the barricade most bravely and fiercely, and there 49 _ was a great battle with the pagans. The pagans shot innumerable arrows from the top of the barricade and from loop—holes. They laid low many daring men of Yermak’s company, wounding some and despatching others to death. The pagans seeing that brave men had fallen, themselves broke through their barricade in three places and came out on a sortie, hoping to put the cossacks to headlong flight. During the sortie a great battle then took place, and they fought ruthlessly until in hand to hand fighting they cut each other down. The cossacks all together fell upon the pagans, displaying their bravery and ferocity before the impious and godless infidels. In a short time the pagans began to fail in their strength. God granted the cossacks victory over the pagans. The cossacks gained ground, overcame them and killed innumerable pagans. They drove them from the barricade and planted their banners on the barricade. They wounded the khan’s heir Mametkul, but his troops carried him ofi" in a small boat across the river Irtish. Khan Kuchyum, standing on a lofty place, saw that his Tatars had fallen and that his son Mametkul had been wounded and had fled. He swiftly commanded his mullahs to call out their abominable infidel prayer. They began to summon to their aid their abominable gods, but there was not even a little aid granted to them. At that time the Ostyak princes departed with their men, each to his home. Khan Kuchyum, seeing his ruin and the loss of his kingdom and riches, said to all his men with bitter lamentation: ‘O murzas and princes, let us flee without delaying. We see ourselves the loss of our kingdom. Our strong ones are exhausted, and our brave warriors have all been slain. O woe is me, what shall I do or where shall I flee? Shame covers my face! Who is it who defeated me and deprived me of my king- dom? The Stroganovs sent men of the common people against me from their forts to avenge on me the evil I had inflicted; they sent the atamans and cossacks, Yermak and his comrades, with not many of their men. He came upon us, defeated us and did us such great harm. They killed my troops and wounded my son, who was taken away from them barely alive. He brought shame upon me myself and drove me from my king— dom. My sickness has returned upon my head, and my iniquity has descended upon me. For I with joy seized what was not mine, I waged war on the Russian land, Perm’ the Great and the Stroganovs’ forts. But now I have been deprived of all I had and I have myself been de— feated. For there is no gladness on earth that does not turn to grief.’ The accursed khan hastened to the city of Sibir’ and took with him some small part of his treasures. They then turned to headlong flight and left the city of Sibir’ deserted. The brave Yermak and his company came to the city of Sibir’, later called Tobolesk, on the 26th of October, sacred to the memory of the holy and great martyr Demetrius of Salonika. They glorified God, who had granted them victory over the pagans and the accursed infidels and rejoiced with great rejoicing. They captured and divided among themselves much wealth of gold and silver and golden fabrics and precious stones and very costly skins of sable, marten and 50 l — fox. It was indeed marvellous to hear and it was fitting in truth to praise almighty God, glorified in the Trinity, who had granted them victory over their pagan enemies. It was not because of the great number of the valiant Russian troops that they defeated the proud Khan Kuchyum, for Khan Kuchyum assembled so many of his troops that one could say that one cossack had to contend with ten or twenty or thirty pagans. The accursed khan lamented exceedingly for the great number of his men who had perished. But God opposes the proud and gives his grace to the humble Christians. On the fourth day the Ostyak prince, Boyar by name, came with many Ostyaks to the city of Yermak and his company ; they brought with them many gifts and provisions. After this many Tatars with their wives and children began to arrive and began to live in their former tents. [18] On the killing of cossacks while fishing near Yabolak. In the same winter, on the 5th of December, when Volga cossacks of Yermak’s company without apprehension went fishing at a certain natural boundary, which is called Yabolak,I and while the cossacks were in their camp, the khan’s heir Mametkul came suddenly and killed them without any surviving. A report concerning their killing was heard in that city. Yermak was very much outraged at this and was moved to anger. In his heart he was greatly enraged, he commanded his company to gird themselves with arms and went to battle. They pursued the pagans from behind and overtook them near Yabolak. The troops thus carried out Yermak’s command, manfully fell upon the pagans and launched an attack. On both sides the troops sprang upon each other savagely and unmercifully. Laid low by these mortal battles, the corpses of the dead fell on both sides. Now already the darkness of night had fallen, and the battle ceased. The pagans fled, and Yermak with his company returned to the city. [19] How they captured alive the khan’s heir Mametkul, the son of Kuchyum. In that spring, at the time of flooding, a Tatar called Seibokhtaz came to the city and said that the khan’s heir Mametkul was stationed at the river Vogay. Certain men of Yermak’s company went to the Vogay and came to that place. At night time they fell upon the camp of the khan’s heir and killed many pagans. They captured alive the khan’s heir Mametkul and brought him to their city. Khan Kuchyum long remained at the river Ishim, waiting for his son Mametkul. Not long after this messengers came to him and informed him of everything in succession, I Now called Abalak (See Map I). Many place—names have changed somewhat, but most are recognisably the same. 2 Senbakhta in the Yesipov chronicle. 51 YERMAK’S CAMPAIGN and told him that the cossacks had made his son prisoner. Khan Kuchyum was not a little afflicted at this, and was much possessed by great sorrow concerning his son Mametkul. [20] On the coming of Prince Seydek, son of Bekbulat, against Khan Kuchyum. After a short time other messengers came to him and announced to him that Prince Seydek, son of Bekbulat, was coming against him with many troops.I Khan Kuchyum, hearing this, was very much alarmed, and after this his councillor Karacha, together with his men, departed from him. Khan Kuchyum lamented bitterly and said to himself: ‘When God does not show grace to a man, then honour turns to dis— honour for him, and even dear friends desert him.’ Karacha came to the Lymskaya land and began to live near a large lake, above the river Tara, near the river Osma. [21] On the daring and bravery of Yermak and on the capture of the city of Kazym, and on the killing of Nikita Pan, the Volga ataman, with his company. In the same year, when Yermak with his company displayed his valour, they unsheathed their swords against the ungodly ones, and trusting so much in the strength of their swords, they captured many strongholds and encampments of the Tatars along the river Irtish and along the Great Ob’ and also the Ostyak city of Kazym2 with their prince. During their advance the pagans killed the ataman Nikita Pan with his company, during the assault on their strongholds. Yermak With his troops returned to the city of Sibir’. Concerning this the atamansand cossacks, Yermak son of Timofey with his comrades, wrote from Sibirl to those honourable men Semen and Maksim and Nikita in their strong- holds that the Lord God, glorified in the Trinity, was pleased to defeat Sultan Kuchyum for them and to capture his capital city in his land of Sibir’, and that they had captured alive his son, the khan’s heir Mamet— kul. Then according to the reports of those atamans and cossacks Semen and Maksim and Mikita Stroganov wrote from their strongholds to Moscow to the Pious Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan 1 It will be remembered that Kuchum had seiZed power by killing Bekbulat (chapter 14). 2 There is a river and a settlement called Kazym some 700 km downstream from Sibir’. Although this district would have been known to Russians, being near one of the more northerly routes across the Urals (see Introduction, p. 18), it seems likelier that Yermak ventured less far than that, to the river and settle- ment called Nazym, near the Ob’—Irtysh confluence and only 300 km from Sibir . Some versions of this chronicle have Nazym, and so do the other chronicles. S. M. Seredonin in his historical essay in Aziatskaya Romya (St Petersburg, 1914), Tom 1, map opp. p. 4, seems to favour Kazym. 52 THE STROGANOV CHRONICLE Vasil’yevich of all Russia, concerning the capture and conquest of the Siberian land and the taking of the khan’s heir Mametkul. Not long after this they themselves went to Moscow, and concerning all of this they informed the sovereign of everything in succession, how they had sent from their strongholds the Volga cossacks with their men to the Siberian land to make war on the Siberian Khan Kuchyum. They made known to the sovereign everything concerning the capture of the khan’s heir Mametkul, the son of Kuchyum, and the taking of his capital city of Sibir’ and the expulsion of Khan Kuchyum and the pacification of the Siberian land. The Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’ye— vich of all Russia, because of their service and zeal granted the towns of Sol’ Bol’shaya, which is on the Volga, and S01’ Malaya. He granted his royal charter for those lands to Semen Stroganov with a red seal with the subscript of the secretary Andrey Shcholkalov, by which he should possess those towns. But to Maksim and Nikita Stroganov he granted that in their townships and strongholds they and all their men should trade exempt from duties. [22] On the sending of cossacks to the sovereign in Moscow with reports, to make obeisance to the sovereign, the tsar, and to make known their service. At that time the Volga atamans and cossacks, Yermak son of Timofey with his company, wrote from Sibir’ to Moscow to the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, concerning the capture of the capital city of Sibir’ and the expulsion of Khan Kuchyum and the taking of the khan’s heir Mametkul and the pacification of the Siberian land. When the sovereign heard of God’s grace, how God had conquered for him, the sovereign, the Siberian land and caused the khan’s heir Mametkul to be captured alive, then to those cossacks who had come to the sovereign with that news, he granted his great favour, money and clothes and damasks. To those atamans and cossacks who were in Sibir’, the sovereign also made a grant and commanded that the sovereign’s full great favour should be sent to them. He also commanded that voyevodas should be sent, together with men in state service, to the Siberian towns, which God had entrusted to him, the sovereign. The sovereign also decreed that the khan’s heir Mametkul should be sent to Moscow. [23] On the sending from Moscow to Sibir’ of the sovereign’s voyevod-as, Prince Semen Bolkhovskiy and Ivan Glukhov. In the second year after the capture of the Siberian land the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, sent from Moscow to Sibir’ the voyevodas, Prince Semen Bolkhovskiy and Ivan 53 Ulukhov, With many troops.l '1'he atamans and cossacks received them with great honour. The sovereign’s voyevodas according to the sover- eign’s inventory made known to them the sovereign’s favour, and arriving at the city of Sibir’ presented it to them. Those atamans and cossacks gave to the sovereign’s voyevodas costly sable skins and fox skins and all kinds of furs, as much as each one could. They were filled with joy and were greatly gladdened, giving thanks to God, seeing that there was conferred on them the sovereign’s favour, which the sovereign had granted and sent them for their service as atamans and cossacks. [24] How there was a famine among the people in Sibir’. During that winter, when the troops from Moscow came to Sibir’ to the cossacks, they consumed the provisions which they had brought with them. The cossacks had prepared provisions, the amount being calculated for their own men, and not knowing of the arrival among them of the men of the Moscow force. Because of this there was a great lack of all provisions, and many died of famine, both the troops from Moscow and the cossacks. The voyevoda Prince Semen Bolkhovskiy also died and was buried at that time in Sibir’. After this the winter time passed, the frost and cold were relieved by the warmth of the sun, a frozen crust formed on the snow, and it was the time for hunting wild beasts, elk and deer. Then those men were provided with food and the famine eased. When spring arrived and the snow was melted by the warmth of the air, every creature grew fat, the trees and herbs were sprouting and the waters were spread out. Then every living creature rejoiced, birds flew to those lands because of their fruits, and in the rivers fish were swim- ming because of their fruitfulness, and there was much hunting of fish and birds. By this hunting they were fed, and there was no famine among the people. Those tribes who lived around that place, Tatars and 0styaks and Voguls, who were under the sovereign’s hand, both far and near, brought to them provisions in great quantity of wild beasts, birds, fish and cattle, and/costly goods, and all kinds of furs. Then the men of Moscow and the cossacks by the grace of God were abundantly supplied with all foods and acquired much wealth for themselves from trading in furs. And being in such joy and gladness, they gave thanks to almighty God, since God had granted to the sovereign such a land blessed with abundance. I This despatch of troops was the first direct action of the Moscow government in the whole campaign. Only when Moscow heard that things were going well, and saw the promise of great gain, did the government move to support what had up to then been an essentially private venture of the Stroganov family. The venture had been known to, perhaps even instigated by, the tsar — but no material assistance had up to now been given. 54 [25] On the sendlng 01 the khan's he1r lVIamCIKUI, son 01 Aucnyum, to Moscow. According to the command of the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, the voyevoda Ivan Glukhov and the Siberian atamans and cossacks sent to the Pious Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, in the reigning city of Moscow the Siberian khan’s heir Mametkul, son of Kuchyum, with many of his men.1 Then for the second time was the tsar’s great favour sent from Moscow to Sibir’ to the atamans and cossacks. [26] On the killing of the atamans Ivan Koltso and Yakov Mikhaylov with their companies. In that year envoys from Karacha came to the city to Yermak and his company to ask for men to protect them from the Nagay Horde, and took an oath that they would neither do nor plan any evil against the cossacks. Yermak and his company trusted in their faithless oath, but they, the evil infidels, formed a plan not favourable to the Christians. The cossacks were enfeebled in their wits and did not remember the saying of the prophet: do not trust in every spirit, but enquire into all spirits, for not every spirit is from God. For there is a spirit of God and a spirit of falsehood.2 They did not discern the falsehoods and deceptions of these accursed men and did not know their custom, that they held their hostages to be beyond their oath because of the evil cunning and inconstancy of the wily Karacha. They could not conceive of it, and they sent to him the ataman Ivan Koltso together with 40 men. These men gave themselves into the hands of the accursed ones and into the keeping of their impious enemies, the godless infidels, and there they were all killed by the impious Karacha. News was heard in the city by the atamans and cossacks, that the amman Ivan Koltso with his company had been slain, and all their brothers wept bitterly for them, lamenting from the bottom of their hearts. It came to the hearing of the pagan infidels, who lived near that town, that the ataman Ivan Koltso together with his company had been slain. Then the ataman Yakov Mikhaylov, wishing to carry on trade among the accursed ones, went up to them to make observations. But those accursed ones seized him and killed him; and so those good and brave soldiers, the atamans, passed away. 2 Mametkul remained to enter the Russian service (see p. 39, note I). The year after his arrival in Moscow the English Ambassador Glles Fletcher reported him to be ‘with the Emperour at Mosco and well interteyned’ (Of the Russe Common Wealth, London, 1591, p. 64"). ‘ . 2 Presumably the passage referred to is Ijohn 1v, I: Beloved, belleve not every spirit, but try the spirits, whether they are of God: because many false prophets have gone out into the world. \T" L27] Ontne advance of Karacha to the city and on the defeat and killing of his sons. In the same year at the time of holy Lent, when the month of March had come, at that time Karacha advanced with many of his men in all his might and power. They encircled all the city with their baggage trains. Karacha himself remained at a certain place called Sauskan, about twO versts from the city. The cossacks were kept under siege for a long t1me. Winter had already passed and the early signs of spring came. When. spring arrived and summer followed on, the earth was bringing forth its .verdure and scattering abroad its seeds, with birds pouring forth their song. To speak briefly, all things were made new. Karacha did not Withdraw even a little, but remained at the investment of the city, Wishing to kill them by famine; and like a viper breathing fury against the cossacks, he deviated in his accursed purpose, and wished to carry them away. The accursed one stretched out his hands to put the cossacks to death and to take to himself their company. He remained near the City for a long time. When the month of June came and the I2th day arrived} the solstice turning back to winter, on one night at that time the atqman Matfey Meshcheryak together with cossacks came out of the City in secret, and there was no word or sound from any one of them. They came to the camp of Karacha and planned to fall upon them, Wishing to take vengeance for the grievous injuries inflicted upon them by Karacha. They came against their impious and deceitful enemy, and there they endeavoured to wreak on him a severe and merciless vengeance. Yermak remained in the city with not many men. The other cossacks came up to Karacha at Sauskan and fell upon their camps man- fully-and bravely, while the pagans Were sleeping without any appre- henSion. By the grace of God and the aid of the most pure Mother of God, the cossacks cut down a great multitude of the pagans, and coming, near the camp of Karacha they killed two of his sons. The pagans fled hither and yon away from the cossacks. Karacha himself and not many men With him fled to the other side of a lake. Others fled to where the pagans were.stationed at the investment of the city. Already after the coming of night day was dawning, and the pagans hearing what had happened all hastened from the city to Sauskan. They Were hoping to put the cossacks to death. They came up to them and began to join battle. The cossacks were not at all alarmed at this, but were even more fortified. The pagans attacked them fiercely. The cossacks defended themselves against the enemy in Sauskan, and so there was a battle until midday, and then the armies’ conflict ceased. The pagans retreated from the Russ1ans, while the cossacks returned to their city, rejoicing and gladdened and rendering praise to almighty God. But Karacha, seeing tlfiat he could not defeat the cossacks, departed to his home covered in s ame. 1 Old Style; 22 June by the Gregorian calendar. 56 [28] On the killing of the brave ataman Yermak, together with Russian warriors. In that year, on the 5th of August, on the eve of the Transfiguration of our Lord, sacred to the memory of the holy martyr Eusignius, messengers came from Bukharans, men engaged in trade, to the atamans and cossacks, to Yermak and his company, and said that Khan Kuchyum would not admit them. Yermak with not many men went to meet them along the river Irtish, and coming to the Vagay did not find the Buk— harans. They went as far as the place called Atbash and returned from there. As already day had passed and the darkness of night had fallen, the cossacks had wearied themselves greatly by the long journey. They came up to a cross-channelI and encamped there for the night. Khan Kuchyum spied them out, sent around for many Tatars and commanded a strict watch to be kept. During that night there was heavy rain. The pagans, like a viper breathing fury against Yermak and his company, were preparing their swords for vengeance, were hoping to regain their inheritance, and wished to achieve the end of their desired aim. The time was about midnight. Yermak and his company were sleeping in their camps, beneath the curtains of their beds. The pagans, breathing fury as if mad, prepared themselves for the shedding of blood, and understood that it was already time to achieve their wish. Swiftly they unsheathed their arms, fell upon their camp and slew them with their drawn swords. And so they were all killed there, and only one escaped; and the most wise, brave and eloquent2 Yermak was killed. Some men remaining of the tribes say that your brave soldier Yermak started up there from his sleep and saw his company being slain by us and could have no hope for his own life 5 that he fled to his boat but could not reach it, since the distance was so great, and here he fell in the river and was drowned. But sent by God, death came suddenly to the brave troops and valiant cossacks, and so they ended their lives. A report was heard in the city by the ataman Matfey Meshcheryak and his company that the Chief drama”, the most wise Yermak, and his company had been slain, and those in the city lamented bitterly for them. [29] On the departure of the cossacks to Russia. Not many days afterwards the ataman Matfey Meshcheryak together with the remaining cossacks went to Russia, leaving the city of Sibir' deserted. 1 Russ. perekop; an artificial short-cut across a loop in the river, dug on Yermak’s orders and later seen by Muller. See Remezov chronicle, chapter 98. ’- Russ. ritor, an orator. It seems entirely likely, from some of his reported adventures, that Yermak had a persuasive tongue. 57 YERMAK’S CAMPAIGN [30] On the coming of the khan’s heir Alliy, son of Kuchyum, to the city. When the cossacks had departed from the city, then the khan’s heir Alliy, son of Kuchyum, saw that the cossacks had left the city, and he came with his men to the city. After this his father, Khan Kuchyum, also came there, to his capital city of Sibir’, full of rejoicing. [31] On the coming of Seydek This news came to the hearing of Prince Seydek, son of Bekbulat, that the leader and commander of the cossacks, the ataman Yermak, had been killed, and that the other cossacks had departed from the city. The Tatars very much rejoiced and were glad of this, since they had a great fear of them. Then Prince Seydek, son of Bekbulat, fearlessly came to the city of Sibir’, defeated Khan Kuchyum and took possession of the city of Sibir’. [32] On the second coming from Moscow of the voyevoda Ivan Mansurov and on the return of the Volga cossacks, the ataman Matfey Meshcheryak with his comrades and with the other remaining troops, who had previously been at war in the Siberian land. In the second year after the killing of Yermak, in the year 7094 [1585]‘ after the day sacred to St Simeon Stylites, the sovereign sent from the reigning city of Moscow the voyevoda Ivan Mansurov with many troops. He came to the river Tura, and there they met the Volga ataman Matfey Meshcheryak with his company.Z The cossacks rejoiced and were glad at the arrival of the voyevoda in the Siberian land. From there they all returned together with one accord to fight against the godless infidels. Together they went down the Tura and the Irtish and reached the Tobol, where is now the Russian city of Tobolesk, protected by God. The pagans assembled in an agreed place near the river Irtish on its bank. When the voyevoda saw such a gathering of the pagans, he and his troops were much alarmed and did not approach the bank. They again went down the Irtish and reached the great river Ob’. For it was then already autumn and the winter time drew near. The air in the sky changed to cold, there was snow, and ice was congealing on the river. The voyewda saw the change in the air, as the winter drew near, and together with all his men he wintered there, established a stronghold above the river Ob’ I Actually only a month after Yermak’s death, which was on 5 August 1585; but since the new year began on I September, it could be said to be ‘in the second year’. 2 According to the other chronicles, Meshcheryak retreated by a more northerly route; but he still could have met Mansurov somewhere. 58 THE STROGANOV CHRONICLE at the mouth of the Irtish and settled in it. With them there were also the Volga cossacks, Matfey Mescheryak and his company. [33] On the coming of the Ostyaks to the stronghold. After some days a great number of the Ostyaks came up to the strong— hold and began to attack it from all sides. The men from that stronghold opposed the attackers from the walls of the stronghold. When the dark- ness of night fell, the pagans withdrew. On the following morning the pagans again came to the stronghold and brought their idol, which they revered. They set it up near the stronghold beneath a tree on a low place and began to make offerings before it, believing that this ungodly helper would conquer the Christians for them and put them to the sword. That idol was renowned and famous among the pagans, and many pagans brought it a great many oflerings from distant towns during all that day. At that time the cossacks fired from their cannon in the stronghold. They smashed into many pieces that tree, beneath which the pagans were making offerings to the idol, and shattered their idol. The pagan infidels were terrified at this, not knowing of it, and they believed that someone had fired from a bow. They said to each other: ‘The Russian troops fire powerfully indeed. They have smashed such a large tree and shattered our god.’ From that time onwards the Ostyaks no longer came to the stronghold. [34] On the third coming from Moscow of the wyevoda Danilo Chyulkov. After some time the Pious Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Feodor Ivanovich of all Russia sent from Moscow to Sibir’ the voyevoda Danilo ChyulkovI with many troops and with artillery. He came to the Siberian land. News of his arrival was heard among the infidel tribes of Sibir’. The Tatars were alarmed at this, fearing the frequent arrival of Russian troops, and fled from the city, which before this was their Tatar capital city in Sibir’, situated at the mouth of the Tobol and the Irtish and named Sibir’. They left this city deserted. The Russian troops arrived, settled in it and fortified the city strongly; it is now the city called Tobolesk, protected by God. [35] On the coming of Prince Seydek, son of Bekbulat, with Siberian troops to make war on the city of Tobolesk. This accursed Mohammedan Prince Seydek planned to assemble a great army with Siberian troops for himself, and he came to make war on I A Danilo Chulkov (ours is spelt in both ways), described as a fwell—born man from the nobility of RyaZan”, was said by Prince A. M. Kurbskiy to have been executed about 1568—70 by Ivan IV (I. L. I. Fennell, Prtnce A. M. Kurbsky 5 history of Ivan IV, Cambridge, 1965, pp. 224—5). A relative, perhaps; or con— ceivably Kurbskiy got it wrong. 59 the city of Tobolesk, wishing to capture it and to kill the people in it, so that Russians would not settle in their land. He professed to the sover- eign’s voyevodas that he had come to trade. He placed his fighting men in concealment, and traded with the Russians for a day. On the following morning he came stealthily up to the city to make an attack with all his men and he invested the city and began to attack it. The troops from Moscow and the Volga cossacks saw their shameless conduct and this violent attack on the city, and allowed them to approach the walls of the city. They began to fire among them from the city and killed many. Some came out of the city on a sortie against them and killed many infidels and captured others alive. In that battle they seized Prince Seydek himself, who had been wounded. Those accursed troops took to flight and fled to their camps. The Russian troops pursued them, cutting them down, even up to their camps. The enemy left their camps and all their wealth in their camps and barely escaped themselves. In that battle the Volga ataman Matfey Meshcheryak was killed. Henceforth there was great fear among all the infidels of the Siberian land, and all the Tatars, both near and far, did not dare to go to war against the sovereign’s cities. [36] On the establishment of cities and forts in the Siberian land. According to the command of the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, and after him according to the command of his son, the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Fedor Ivanovich of all Russia, there began to be established in the Siberian land cities and forts and there began to be propagated in the Siberian land the Christian Orthodox faith. Churches to God were raised up, and the preaching of the Gospel teaching spread to every end of the Siberian land, and the thunder of psalms resounded. In many places by the command of those sovereigns Christian cities and strongholds were established, and in them churches to God were raised up, and monas— teries were constituted to the glory of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. The unbelievers saw such grace shining forth in their land and the sovereign’s imperial hand raised over them, and many sub- mitted themselves under the sovereign’s hand and left their impious faith. Many unbelievers came to baptism and were baptised, living in the Orthodox faith. Everywhere indeed was the grace of God spread abroad and poured out abundantly throughout the length of the Siberian land. [37] On the collection of fur tribute. After the capture and purification of all the Siberian land and after the pacification of the infidel people, the Siberian Tatars and the Ostyaks and Voguls, by the trading of the honourable men, Semen and Maksim and Mikita Stroganov, and by the aid, bravery and valour of the good troops of good birth, the atamans and cossacks, Yermak son of 60 Timofey Povolskoy and his comrades, then those honourable men also won over in addition the infidels living near their strongholds and forts along the Kama, the Chyusovaya, the Usva, the Sylva, the Yayva, the Obva, the Inva, the Kosva and other rivers. They brought all those infidels to take an oath, that they would serve the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil’yevich of all Russia, without treachery, and in all things to act uprightly and to be well disposed to the sovereign, and to give fur tribute1 from themselves. And henceforth Semen and Maksim and Nikita began to send their men to collect that fur tribute from their strongholds and forts along the rivers to the encampments of the Tatars, Ostyaks and Voguls and to collect fur tribute from those infidels and to send it with their men to Moscow to the Novgorod treasury.2 And afterwards by the command of the Sovereign, the Tsar and Great Prince Fedor Ivanovich of all Russia, from those infidels the collections of tribute began to be made by the voywodax among the towns, where those tribes lived at various places, at Cherdyn’, Ufa and Verkhotur’ye and among other Siberian towns, where those tribes lived around near the towns. This narrative is set forth concerning the establishment of strongholds and forts in the Siberian lands, the despatch of the atamans and cossacks, Yermak son of Timofey and his comrades, to Sibir’, the journeying of those cossacks in the Siberian lands, the defeat of Khan Kuchyum, the capture of his son, the khan’s heir Mametkul, and the taking possession of the Siberian land by the troops of the Russian state. These words on this theme have come to the close of this narrative. For so every reader will understand and will not forget the achievement of such great things. I wrote this account for a commemoration, so that the accomplishment of such great things will not be forgotten. ‘ Russ. yasak, a word of Turkic origin meaning tribute of any kind, .but in Siberia it came to mean fur tribute. It acquired great importance, and indeed was one of the driving forces behind the whole Russian advance across Siberia. Fur tribute had been levied on the northern peoples by Tatars and Mongols before the arrival of the Russians, who took over many points in the eXisting collection system. For detailed examinatioén of the system, see Bakhrushin, I a . —8 and Fisher, I943, pp. 49— I. c2133 rsneaning in the I6th and I7th centuries an oflice of the central government concerned with the taxable peasantry (tyagloye naselemye) from.a financial and administrative point of View. There were Six oflL‘ices of this kind in the early I7th century, each in a different town, and the Novgorod office evidently dealt with this particular levy — perhaps because of its earlier assoc1ation With the fur trade. ...
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The Stroganov Chronicle. - WORKS ISSUED BY THE HAKLUYT...

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