Psychology_ch2

Psychology_ch2 - Chapter 2 - Neuroscience and Biological...

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Chapter 2 - Neuroscience and Biological Foundations Phineas Gage First patient from whom we learned something about the relation between personality and the function of the front parts of the brain. First patient to show relation between personality and frontal lobes Foreman of railway construction Shattering large sections of rock with explosives Drill hole in rock, fill with blasting powder and sand and tamper down September 13, 1848: forgot sand, tamping rod blown through skull Hole only filled with blasting powder so exploded on impact Rod entered through left cheek and exited through top of head Didn’t lose consciousness although rod was covered w/blood and brain matter Before accident = capable, nice After accident = rude, profane, irritable Fairly typical for damage to frontal lobes (e.g., stroke) Typical to be rude after this Started to have epileptic seizures in February of 1860 -- died a few months later Biological psychology – researches the physical and chemical changes that cause, and occur in response to, behavior and mental processes Nervous system – combination of cells whose primary function is to allow an organism to gain information about what is going on inside and outside the body and to respond appropriately. Cells of the Nervous System Neurons - aka nerve cells, the basic units of the nervous system. They transmit info thru the brain and body. Glial cells –support and nourish the neurons. May also be involved in communications. 1
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Be able to label neuron and identify their functions Cell body – AKA Soma – contains nucleus, helps neuron carry out its functions Dendrites – branchlike extensions of cell body, receive info from other cells Axons – long extension from cell body that conveys info towards other neurons, or muscles and glands Myelin sheath – a white, fatty coating. Insulates axon and increases transmission speed. It insulates the axon from chemical or physical stimuli that might interfere with the transmission of messages. Increases transmission speed. Schwann cells : Beads of the myelin sheath Nodes of Ranvier : Sections between Schwann cells where axon is exposed Messages hop from node to node which increases speed of transmission (vs. traveling the whole length of the axon) Terminal buttons – send signals from a neuron to adjacent cells Synapse – connections between neurons Synaptic cleft – space between 2 neurons, (they don’t really touch each other) Communication between Neurons Action Potentials Process begins in neuron, when electrical messages are received by dendrites and cell body Messages passed along axon as a neural impulse or action potential Movement down axon results from change in permeability of cell membrane Chemicals inside/outside tube are ions (carry an electric charge) When neuron is resting (inactive), fluid outside more(+ ) axon is polarized (like a battery)
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Psychology_ch2 - Chapter 2 - Neuroscience and Biological...

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