Psychology_ch3

Psychology_ch3 - Chapter 3 Nature vs Nurture, and Human...

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Chapter 3 – Nature vs Nurture, and Human Diversity Environment – everything except genetics, every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us Behavioral genetics – subfield that tries to tease apart env & genetics, explores the impact of genetics and env factors on diff in the behavioral, biological, and psychological processes of groups Genes: Our Code for Life Chromosomes – bundles of coiled DNA, found in every cell with a nucleus Humans – 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs in nucleus Chromosomes => DNA =>genes Chromosomes made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA is made up of genes (pieces of genetic material that control or influence traits) Methods for Studying Behavioral Genetics 1. Twin Studies - There’s a solid logic to twin studies: basically, people produce two types of twins: Monozygotic – identical, “one zygote”, 100% shared DNA Dizygotic – fraternal, “two zygote”, ~50% shared DNA “Twinned”environment = same food, same family, etc If monozygotic twins more similar, then DNA = influential It has been argued that identical twins share more environmental experiences than fraternal twins – could this be a stronger effect on similarity than their shared genes? o No : identical twins treated similarly by parents are no more alike than identical twins whose parents tried to treat them differently If one twin has one genetic, how often does second twin have that same characteristic? Separated Twins – the anecdotal evidence from identical twins raised apart gives startling insight into the influence of genes. Your book tells the story of 2 Jims, separated at birth, whose lives were amazingly similar. I’d like to tell you another story – this is from the New York Post – September 23, 2007 (stories point out surprising similarities) 1
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Note: not enough stories to use as scientific evidence BUT 1. If any 2 strangers spent a lot of time together, they would discover similarities in their histories. 2. Identical twins look alike – our appearances affect the way others treat us (nicer to pretty people than ugly people) 3. Adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes. 2. Adoption Studies – focus on children who were adopted at birth and brought up by parents not genetically related to them. More like adopted parents => environment
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This note was uploaded on 10/22/2009 for the course PSYCH 2000 taught by Professor Domangue during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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Psychology_ch3 - Chapter 3 Nature vs Nurture, and Human...

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