Psychology_ch4

Psychology_ch4 - Ch 7 Learning Learning relatively...

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Ch 7– Learning Learning – relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. Classroom learning and studying New skill Covers many other forms of learning as well: Behaviorism – the view that psychology… (1) Should be an objective science (most psych. agree with this) (2) Studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Stimuli Don’t meaningfully attend to everything around us Notice certain kinds of stimuli –loud noises (danger!) Also pay more attention to unfamiliar, new things: Novel stimuli – something new Non-Association Learning Non-Association Learning - Learning that only involves 1 stimulus. Habituation –simple form of learning in which we ignore unchanging stimuli Smelling something stinky Dishabituation – we re-orient to the stimulus when it changes. However, most of our learning is more complicated. Associative learning Associative learning learning that certain events occur together. Classical conditioning, AKA Pavlovian conditioning – type of learning in which a response naturally provoked by one stimulus comes to be provoked by a different, formerly neutral stimulus. Neutral stimulus – does not produce the behavior being studied. 1
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Classical conditioning was discovered almost by accident by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist who was studying digestive processes. Because animals salivate when food is placed in their mouths, Pavlov inserted tubes into the salivary glands of dogs to measure how much saliva they produced when they were given food. He noticed, however, that the dogs salivated before the food was in their mouths : the mere sight of food made them drool. In fact, they even drooled at the sound of the experimenter’s footsteps. So Pavlov wondered – what was making the dogs salivate even before they got the food? To answer these questions, Pavlov set out to teach the dogs to salivate when food was not present. He came up with an experiment where he sounded a bell just before the food was brought into the room. Now dog drools as soon as bell rang. Elements of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus - UCS – always causes organism to respond in a specific way. Causes UCR: Unconditioned response – UCR –takes place whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs. Pavlov’s exp: food Natural, reflexive reaction Conditioned stimulus CS –originally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone. Pavlov’s: bell Causes CR Conditioned response – CR – After conditioning, the response an organism produces when only a conditioned stimulus is presented. UCS = puff of air (which will always make you…)
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Psychology_ch4 - Ch 7 Learning Learning relatively...

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