Psychology_ch8

Psychology_ch8 - Chapter 8 Memory Information Processing...

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Chapter 8 – Memory Information Processing Encoding – the act of acquiring information and putting it into memory. Storage – retaining information in memory over time. Retrieval – recovering information from memory storage. Atkinson and Shiffrin’s Three-stage Processing Model of Memory 1. Sensory memory – short-lived memory process. All the info coming into your body. 2. Short-Term and Working Memory – contents of your conscious mind Short-term memory – receives info that was perceived in sensory memory. Remembering numbers before adding them(passive) Working memory – allows you to manipulate info held in short-term memory. Adding numbers (active) 3. Long-Term Memory – long-lasting stage of memory whose capacity is unlimited (can always learn new info) Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode: Some information we process automatically, with little to no effort. Other information more difficult. Effortful processing – encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. (Reading textbook) Rehearsal – repeating something again and again, to keep it in your conscious mind or to encode it for storage (remember it) Repeating “milk, butter, eggs” => shopping Limitations of Rehearsal Free recall task – giving someone a list of > 20 words, one at a time, and then asking them to recall the entire list after the last word is presented Serial position effect – U-shaped pattern of performance on a free recall task when recall is plotted as a function of word position 1
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You remember first part and last part better than the middle part Primacy effect – relatively good recall of the 1st part of the list More time to rehearse info Recency effect – relatively good recall of the last part of list You just heard them, so easily retrieved from short-term store What We Encode Memory codes – mental representations of physical stimuli Acoustic encoding – storing sounds Visual encoding – storing images Semantic encoding – storing meaning Organizing Information for Encoding Information easier to encode if organized meaningfully. Chunking – organizing items into familiar, manageable units, often based on meaning (321 instead of 3-2-1) Storage: Retaining Information Sensory Memory – Almost a direct representation of actual sensory attributes of the stimulus. Iconic memory - visual memory (200-300 ms, gone if you don’t notice it) Echoic memory - auditory memory. Like a tape. (1-2 s, some research says 5 s) Working/Short-term Memory – limited capacity Miller's Magic 7 + 2 – People can process about 7 units of information in short-term memory at a time (Range 5- 9). Short-term memory also has a limited duration - lasts about 30 seconds. If you think about it long enough it might go to long-term memory. Long-term Memory
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Psychology_ch8 - Chapter 8 Memory Information Processing...

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