Chapter 5 Summary - Chapter 5 Summary: Learning is the...

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Chapter 5 Summary: Learning is the process that allows us to adapt to the changing conditions of the environment around us and is defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice (as opposed to changes brought about by maturation). Ivan Pavlov , a Russian physiologist, discovered one of the simplest forms of learning called classical conditioning . In classical conditioning, an organism learn to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original stimulus that produced the response in the first place. The original stimulus is called the unconditioned (or “unlearned”) stimulus (UCS) and the reflex response is the unconditioned response (UCR) . If a neutral stimulus (NS) is repeatedly paired with the UCS, it will eventually produce the same kind of reflexive response. At this point, the NS is called a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the response is called a conditioned, or learned, response (CR) . The repeated pairing of the NS and UCS is known as acquisition . In order for classical conditioning to occur, the CS must occur before the UCS, the CS and UCS must occur close together in time, the CS and UCS must be paired together repeatedly, and the CS should be distinctive. Two other principles of classical conditioning are stimulus generalization , the ability of a stimulus that resembles the CS to produce a CR and stimulus discrimination , learning to respond to different stimuli in different ways. In classical conditioning, extinction occurs after the CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS and no longer produces a CR. Spontaneous recovery occurs when the CS is presented after being absent for a period of time and produces a mild CR. When a powerful conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, the conditioned stimulus itself can function as a UCS and turn the neutral stimulus into a second conditioned stimulus. This process is called higher- order conditioning . John Watson demonstrated a particular type of classical conditioning called conditional emotional response with Little Albert and his learned phobia of white rats. Vicarious conditioning occurs when a person becomes classically conditioned simply by watching someone else respond to a stimulus. Conditioned taste aversions are a unique form of classical conditioning that can occur with only one neutral stimulus – unconditioned stimulus pairing. Conditioning is believed to occur so rapidly due to the
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Chapter 5 Summary - Chapter 5 Summary: Learning is the...

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