Psychology - Chapter7Summary Thinking,orcognition, . ,...

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Chapter 7 Summary: Thinking , or  cognition , can be defined as mental activity that goes on in the brain when a  person is processing information.  Cognition includes both verbal and nonverbal processes.  Two examples of cognition are  mental images , which are picture-like representations that  stand in for objects or events, and  concepts , or ideas that represent a class of objects.  Concepts can be ranked from general to specific by applying the terms  superordinate basic   level  type, and  subordinate .   Formal concepts  are defined by specific rules, while  natural   concepts  are formed as a result of experience.  A  prototype  is a specific example of a concept  that closely resembles the defining features of a concept.  Concepts are formed through  experience and culture and have an impact on our thinking. Problem solving  involves using our thoughts or cognitions to reach a goal and consists  of at least four different techniques.   Trial-and-error  problem solving makes use of mechanical  solutions.  When someone uses  algorithms  to problem-solve they are following step-by-step  procedures to solve the problem.   Heuristics  are general “rules of thumb” that can be applied to  many situations.  Means-end analysis  is an example of one type of heuristic where the  difference between where you are and where you want to be is determined and then steps are  taken to reduce that difference.   Insight  consists of solving the problem by having a sudden  moment of inspiration or “aha!” moment.   Artificial intelligence  is the creation of a machine  that can think like a human, and is represented today through computer program such as Deep  Blue. Some factors that interfere with problem solving include  functional fixedness , which is  when a person thinks about objects only in terms of their typical uses;  mental sets  which are  tendencies to use the same problem-solving strategies that worked in the past; and  confirmation bias , which consists of the search for evidence that fits your beliefs while ignoring 
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2009 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Nahad during the Fall '07 term at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Psychology - Chapter7Summary Thinking,orcognition, . ,...

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