Psychology - Chapter 14 Summary The study of abnormal...

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Chapter 14 Summary The study of abnormal behavior, or psychopathology , can be traced to at least as early as 3000 B.C. from evidence of trepanning, or drilling some holes in the skull. Today abnormal behavior is considered to be any behavior that is rare, deviates from the social norm within the situational context , causes subjective discomfort , or is maladaptive . Psychological disorders are defined as a pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm themselves or others, or interferes with their ability to function in daily life. The sociocultural perspective of abnormality takes into account the effect of culture on behavior and suggests that psychological disorders should be assessed within the realm of cultural relativity . Culture-bound syndromes are certain psychological disorders that are only found in particular cultures. The biological model of psychopathology proposes that psychological disorders arise from a physical or biological cause. The psychoanalytical model suggests that disorders are the result of repressed thoughts in the unconscious mind, while the behaviorist model explains disorders as a set of learned behaviors. Cognitive psychologists have proposed the cognitive model which describes psychological disorders as resulting from faulty thinking patterns. The biopsychosocial model proposes that abnormal behavior is the result of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. Currently in the United States, psychological disorders are assessed by referring to the Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Version 4, Text Revision ( DSM-IV-TR ) which provides information about 250 different disorders including common symptoms, prevalence rates, and criteria for diagnosis. The individual is assessed in five different categories, or axes. Axis 1 contains all the psychological disorders except personality disorders. Axis II includes personality disorders and mental retardation. Axis III includes an assessment of any physical disorders that affect a person psychologically. Axis IV consists of problems in a person’s environment that may be affecting his or her psychological functioning, and Axis V is an assessment of a person’s overall (or global) level of functioning ranging from 0 to 100. In a given year, about 22 percent of adults in the United States could be diagnosed with a mental disorder. Anxiety disorders
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2009 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Nahad during the Fall '07 term at Ivy Tech Community College.

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Psychology - Chapter 14 Summary The study of abnormal...

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