ENG 112-WOOD-CH8-6e - ChapterEight:TheFallacies...

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Chapter Eight:  The Fallacies  and Ethical Argument Detecting Logical Fallacies
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What Are Fallacies?
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Definitions of Fallacies Hasty Generalization Related to prejudices  and superstitions  (spilled salt, black cats) Based on insufficient  evidence  Neither you nor I can  speak French;  therefore, no one at Ivy  Tech speaks French.  Faulty Use of Authority Misquoting or using  authorities with poor  credentials Madonna is against animal testing. So animal testing is probably an unethical practice.
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Definitions of Fallacies Post Hoc or Doubtful  Cause “After this, therefore  because of this”        A B   or   A,  B   A rooster’s crowing  causes the sun to rise. False Analogy Misleading comparison,  sometimes with “like” or  “as” Students should look at textbooks during exams because lawyers have briefs.
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Definitions of Fallacies Ad Hominem “Against the man” Attacking the person,  rather than the issue “What can a priest tell  us about marriage?  He’s never been  married.” Either-Or (False Dilemma) Poses an either-or  situation The Shah of Iran in  1975 stated,  “What’s wrong with  authority? Is anarchy  better?”
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Slippery Slope “Taking a first step will  lead inevitably to a  second, usually  undesirable step.”  The Connecticut law  allowing sixteen-year- olds and their parents to  divorce each other will  mean the death of the  family. Begging the Question or 
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ENG 112-WOOD-CH8-6e - ChapterEight:TheFallacies...

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