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Unformatted text preview: COUNTER-ARGUMENTS:
Anticipating and Addressing the Anticipating and Addressing the Arguments of Your Opponents Part I: CounterArgument Paper Part II: CounterArguments in the Position Paper FIRST, ANSWER THIS QUESTION: “WHEN DOES ARGUMENT WORK BEST?” “WHEN When an issue, arguer, and audience ___ (A) are in total agreement. (B) are in total disagreement. (C) find common ground. The answer is “C.” THE FOLLOWING TERMS ARE HELPFUL FOR INTRODUCING COUNTER-ARGUMENTS. INTRODUCING Concession Terms: Some believe that . . . My opponents argue that . . . Granted, . . . It is true that . . . Admittedly, . . . NEXT,DECIDE YOUR STYLE OF ARGUMENTATION. ARGUMENTATION.
Traditional (Adversarial) Argument: Making a claim, supporting it with reasons and evidence Aristotle (The Rhetoric) Argument should “find all available means of persuasion in order to convince an audience to change its mind and agree with the arguer.” Consensual (Rogerian) Argument: Emphasizing common ground, compromise, and agreement Part I: LOOK AT YOUR PROPOSAL THESIS; THEN WRITE A “COUNTER.” THESIS;
ORIGINAL THESIS (from the Proposal): Inmates should receive minimal healthcare and fewer resources because prison should be basically punitive, the cost is exorbitant, and many law abiding citizens do not have access to the same health benefits or resources. COUNTERARGUMENT THESIS: Some experts believe that inmates should receive high quality healthcare and more resources. SAMPLE INTRODUCTION Should prisoners have access to quality healthcare? Should taxpayers spend money on prisoners’ medical emergencies when they may not be covered themselves? Now that we are in a recession, these questions become even more controversial. Despite the controversy, some experts believe that inmates should receive high quality healthcare and more resources. (not the writer’s belief) SAMPLE BODY PARAGRAPH SAMPLE Some believe that spending money on prison healthcare may actually benefit us all. It is true that the number of inmates with illnesses and diseases is extremely high. (Add facts and statistics from a source.) Admittedly, by treating and diagnosing HIV, hepatitis C, TB, mental illness, and sexually transmitted diseases, the threat to the public may be lessened (Stone, 2008, p. 1). The following chart demonstrates how common AIDS cases have been in prisons, compared to the population at large: [Chart omitted, APA form] FINAL NOTES FINAL Add a References Page (APA) or Works Cited (MLA) to your CounterArgument Paper. Accurate intext citations must appear within your paper. Later, you will incorporate these counter arguments into your final Position Essay. See the next slides (Part II) for more information. PART II: IN YOUR FINAL POSITION PAPER, PART REBUTTAL TRANSITIONS ARE HELPFUL. REBUTTAL Rebuttal Terms: But However Nevertheless Although Yet In reality SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER SAMPLE The next two slides show an example of a TRADITIONAL argument. It was written in 2000 by a student who prefers to remain anonymous. Original Thesis: More people should choose cremation [vs. traditional burials] because of cemetery space shortage, society’s increased mobility, and rising funeral expenses. FIRST COUNTER-ARGUMENT
Original Thesis: More people should choose cremation Admittedly, many object to cremation. Religious belief Admittedly is one of these objections. Many Christians reject cremation due to the belief that all dead believers will be raised to life at the last trumpet call. Professor Prothera, states, “Burial symbolically preserves the dead body until it is restored” (as qtd. in Sillars 3). Later she offered rebuttal, just as you may in the later Position Paper: However, other religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Shinto believe that “cremation sets the soul free to experience another rebirth” (Sillars 4). SECOND COUNTER-ARGUMENT
Original Thesis: More people should choose cremation Another objection is that the mourners want a Another objection permanent resting place for their loved ones so that they can visit and grieve. Which family member would receive the urn? Wouldn’t a central location be the fairest choice? Later she offered rebuttal, just as you may in the later Position Paper: Although many people have the misconception that all cremations end up in urns, remains can be buried in a smaller plot without an expensive burial vault and with a traditional marker. Cemeteries also offer spacesaving spaces in columbaria, which are walls with spaces for cremated remains, according to Funeral Director Bill Siets. POSSIBLE ORGANIZATIONS FOR A TRADITIONAL ARGUMENT TRADITIONAL Introduction Background CounterArguments and Rebuttals Your Arguments (at least three) Conclusion Introduction Background First myth or misconception (counter argument), followed by the “reality,” your argument Second misconception Third misconception, etc. Conclusion To WRITE A CONSENSUAL (ROGERIAN) ARGUMENT, NOTE THE EMPHASIS.
POSSIBLE ORGANIZATION: POSSIBLE ORGANIZATION: Introduction Summary of the opponents’ point of view Identification of the validity of some of the opponents’ arguments Your thesis—a compromise between your original view and valid arguments of your opponents Your additional arguments Conclusion ROGERIAN SAMPLE THESIS ROGERIAN
Your original argument might be, “Animal experimentation is essential for medical advancement.” After exploring the opponents’ position in depth, you reach a compromise for your thesis statement Thesis (a compromise): Although it is unfortunate that we need to use animals to gain information, some animal experimentation is essential for fighting illnesses and advancing medicine. ...
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- Spring '09