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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 Chapter
The Essential Parts of an The Argument: The Toulmin Model Argument: Outcomes of Argument: Outcomes Probability vs. Certainty
Argument invites different views and Argument perspectives perspectives Outcomes include achieving closer Outcomes agreement with friendly audience agreement Or, getting the attention of neutral Or, audiences audiences Math seeks what is certain or true Argument establishes what is probably Argument true and what should be done true Stephen Toulmin, English philosopher, Stephen developed the model in1958 developed Model The Parts of an Argument: The Toulmin Model Toulmin Essential parts
Claim – thesis Claim Data (support) --evidence Data Warrant –assumptions, accepted beliefs Additional elements
Backing – support for warrants Rebuttal—what is wrong or invalid Qualifier—establish probabilities The Toulmin Model The
(S) Support Therefore, (Q) Qualifier + (C) Claim Since (W) Warrant Because (B) Backing Unless (R) Rebuttal Claim Claim
What is the author trying to prove? What do I want to prove? Main point of the argument Synonyms: Thesis Proposition Conclusion Main point May be explicitly stated May be inferred May use irony (says one thing but means something May else) else) Organizes entire argument Support Support
What additional What information does the author supply to convince me of this claim? claim? What information do I What need to supply to convince my audience? audience?
Synonyms: Data Grounds Proof Evidence Reasons Subclaims Specific support Facts Opinions Examples Images Support Support
Most argument contains two levels of support Subclaims – supporting arguments or reasons for the claim Specific Support – provides evidence, opinions, reasoning, Specific examples, and factual information
Facts Facts Opinions – facts are interpreted Examples – real or made up Support can appear before the claim, after the claim Comprises both subclaims and all the explicitly stated Comprises explanations explanations May be true or probable May Support Support
When read: “The author wants me to believe that… [the The claim] because …[list support].” claim] “I have convinced my audience to believe [th have claim] because [list your support].” claim] When revise: Warrants Warrants
Assumptions, general principles, Assumptions, conventions of specific disciplines, widely held beliefs, and appeals to human motives motives Generally accepted beliefs Commonly accepted beliefs Warrants can be shared by the audience Warrants or in conflict Warrants Warrants
Chaining arguments – the process of developing new Chaining arguments arguments Synonyms: Unstated assumptions Presuppositions of the author Unstated premises What is left out here? What does the author value? Do I share those values? What is causing the author to say these things? Do I believe that the evidence supports this claim? Why Do or why not? or Backing Backing
Additional evidence to “back up” a warrant Look for the warrant and then determine Look whether or not you accept it whether Rebuttal Rebuttal
A rebuttal establishes what is wrong, invalid, or rebuttal unacceptable unacceptable May present counterarguments May appear as answers to arguments that have May been stated been What are the other possible views on this issue? Are other views represented here along with Are reasons? reasons? How can I answer other views? Qualifiers Qualifiers
Language of certainty (always, never, the Language best, the worst) best, Argument establishes probabilities Always and never change to sometimes Qualified language is better for Qualified demonstrating probabilities demonstrating Value of the Toulmin Model Value
Invites more shared common ground and more Invites audience participation audience Accommodates all forms of arguments Syllogism has a summary, two premises an a Syllogism conclusion – one-way communication conclusion Arguer must anticipate other views and, at times, Arguer acknowledge them acknowledge Encourages an exchange of views Useful for invention and revision for writers of Useful argument Useful for analyzing and describing the essential parts of written argument ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2009 for the course ENG ENG 112 taught by Professor Rebeccapumphrey during the Spring '09 term at Ivy Tech Community College.
- Spring '09