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ENG 112-WOOD-CH6PP-6e - Chapter 6 Chapter Types of Claims...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 Chapter Types of Claims Understand Claim Understand Categories for claims helps us understand Categories the purposes and special features of argument argument Allows us to predict and anticipate Allows features of the type of argument presented presented Get Sense of Purpose and Parts of an Argument Parts Survey Divide the Argument into its Parts Ask why the parts have been placed in Ask that particular order that Analyze the relationships among the parts Types of Claims Types Claims of fact Claims of definition Claims of cause Claims of value Claims of policy Claims of Fact Claims Questions answered by claims of fact: Did it happen? It is true? Does it exist? Is it a fact? Factual Inductive reasoning – cites examples and then draws Inductive probable conclusions Analogies– comparisons Signs – past or present state of affairs Expert opinion Types of support Claims of Fact Claims Possible organizational strategies Chronological order Topical order Often stated near the beginning of the Often argument argument Claims of Definition Claims Questions Answered: Questions What is it? What is it like? How should it be classified? How should it be interpreted? How does its usual meaning change in a How particular context? particular Claims of Definition Claims Types of support Reliable authorities and accepted sources Analogies Comparison-and-contrast Topical Topical Explain the controversy; give reasons for Explain accepting one view accepting Organization Strategies Claims of Cause Claims Questions Answered: What caused it? Where did it come from? Why did it happen? What are the effects? What will probably be the results over the What short and long term? short Claims of Cause Claims Types of Support Factual data Statistics Analogies Analogies Literal Literal Historical Signs of certain causes Induction Deduction Claims of Value Claims Questions Answered: Is it good or bad? How bad? How good? Of what worth is it? Is it moral or immoral? Who thinks so? What do those people value? What values or criteria should I use to determine its What goodness or badness? goodness Are my values different from other people’s values or Are from the author’s values? from Claims of Value Claims Types of Support Appeals to values Motivational appeals Analogies Literal Figurative Quotations from authorities Induction Signs Definitions Definitions Claims of Value Organization Strategies Organization Applied criteria Topical organization Narrative structure Claims of Policy Claims Questions Answered: What should we do? How should we act/ What should future policy be? How can we solve this problem? What concrete course of action should we What pursue to solve the problem? pursue Claims of policy tend to focus on the future Claims of Policy Claims Types of support Data Statistics Moral and commonsense appeals Motivational appeals Appeals to values Literal analogies Argument from authority Definition Deduction Claims of Policy Claims Organization Strategies Problem-Solution Problem described in sufficient detail so audience Problem will want a solution will Solution is spelled out Solution is superior to other solutions as what is wrong Solution with the other solutions is shown with Visualization of how matters will be improved Ends with action step Claims in Life Claims Two or more types of claims may be Two present in one essay present Look for the predominant claim The main purpose of the argument Types of support that may be used Possible organization strategies Claims follow a predictable sequence Value of the Claims Value Useful to identify the claim and main Useful purpose purpose Help identify minor purposes Help Analyze issues Analyze Write a claim about an issue ...
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