ForensicsClass Notes

ForensicsClass Notes - BIO199H: Class Notes 2006-01-05...

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BIO199H: Class Notes 2006-01-05 Forensic Latin – forensic: Public Modern : belonging to or used in public, in a court, or in the justice system Forensic Science - Application of science in laws that are enforced by police and the criminal justice system - Scientific analysis and interpretation of physical evidence for use in court - Applied Science = has a goal - Scientific Method 1. observe something – ask a question 2. hypothesis – intelligent guess, because it is backed by previous knowledge 3. design an experiment 4. collect data - qualatative = observation - quantatative = measure, collect 5. analyze and interpret data 6. draw conclusions - null hypothesis = the negative ( the bullet was not fired from this gun) - alternate hypothesis = the bullet was fired from this gun *** It is always easier to prove its not true *** *** We can fail to prove its false *** The absence of information showing a theory to be incorrect leads us to accept it as correct until we get more info. Designing an Experiment - compare microscopically with test bullets we know were fired from this gun Controls Standard Devices with which the results of an experiment can be measured Collect data - photograph, question & reference bullets through the microscope - record the number of features in common Analyze and interpret - determine and distinguish marks to ensure relevance Draw a conclusion - summarize data - statement of meaning / data - number of marks in common
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Qualifications of a Forensic Scientist At least a bachelors - good background in sciences (chemistry, biology, physics), Math & English - title not as important as courses taken - good speaking skills - good note taking skills - good writing skills - ability to write an understandable scientific report - intellectual curiosity - personal integrity History and development of Forensic Science *** Reading Assignment – Chapter 1 *** Highlights - http://www.courttv.com/onair/shows/forensicfiles/timeline .html - 1880’s Sherlock Holmes detective published by Sir Arthur Doyle - 1910 First Forensic lab opened in France by Edmund Locard - Locard’s exchange principle – “every contact leaves a trace” The Crime Lab - Approx. 350 crime labs in the US - Approx. 80% are affiliated with a police department - Approx. 20% are in the private sector - Cell Mark Diagnostics (DNA Lab) - Batelle Corp (Arson investigation) - Sirchie Corp (Fingerprint and trace evidence collection) 4 Major Federal Labs - Cases that extend beyond jurisdictional boundaries of a state 1. FBI - World’s Largest Lab! - Broad powers - Violent crimes 2. DEA Lab (DEAL) - Drug Enforcement Agency - Analysis of illegal drugs 3. ATF Lab (BATFE) - Explosions (bombs, arson) - Analysis of Alcohol - Weapons 4. United States Postal Service (USPIS)
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- Investigations relative to the postal service Responsibilities of the crime lab - vary in different communities - dependent on local laws - differing capabilities and functions Physical science unit - physics, chemistry, geology - drugs, glass, paint, ect…
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2009 for the course BIO 199H taught by Professor L during the Winter '06 term at Converse.

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ForensicsClass Notes - BIO199H: Class Notes 2006-01-05...

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