ANTH 171 Terms and Notes

ANTH 171 Terms and Notes - ANTH 171 - Key Terms and Notes...

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ANTH 171 - Key Terms and Notes (Week 1) : Gene(s) –Mendel’s units of heredity. Is the smallest functional unit of heredity. Is composed of DNA. Allele – An allele is a viable DNA coding that occupies a given locus (position) on a chromosome . Usually alleles are sequences that code for a gene , but sometimes the term is used to refer to a non-gene sequence. An individual's genotype for that gene is the set of alleles it happens to possess. In a diploid organism, one that has two copies of each chromosome, two alleles make up the individual's genotype. Locus - Is a section (position) on a chromosome that relates in a meaningful way to a function Homozygous – If the two genes, or alleles, for a trait are the same, then the organism is homozygous . Heterozygous – If the two genes, or alleles, for a trait are different, then the organism is heterozygous . Mitosis – Cellular reproduction. Meiosis – Process by which the reproductive cells are formed. DNA - is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . Genotype – The genetic makeup of an individual. Phenotype – Observable appearance of an organism. Messenger RNA (mRNA) - Is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. Ribosome - Is a small, dense, functional structure found in all known cells that assemble proteins . Complex trait – Many genes come into play to form one distinct trait. Genetic drift – Random changes in traits. These can be evolutionary changes and can happen purely by chance. Can also occur when populations separate. Gene flow
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2009 for the course ANTH 171 taught by Professor Franciswhite during the Spring '09 term at University of Oregon.

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ANTH 171 Terms and Notes - ANTH 171 - Key Terms and Notes...

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