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ANTH_171_Review__2_Answers (4)

ANTH_171_Review__2_Answers (4) - ANTH 171 Midterm 2 Review...

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ANTH 171 – Midterm 2 Review: What is a biome and what determines a biome? A biome is a group of natural communities that are broadly similar in vegetation structure. A biome is determined mostly by temperature and precipitation (rainfall) Examples: Tundra, Tropical Rainforest, Grassland, etc. What type of biome are primates found in? Most, but not all, primates are found in the tropics. Define the tropics: The tropics occur between 23.5 degrees north and south of the equator. Ex. The Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the South. How many wet seasons are there near 23.5 degrees North and South and near the equator? There are two wet seasons and two dry seasons during the year at the equator. The Tropic of Cancer in the north has one wet season and one dry season. The tropic of Capricorn in the South has one wet season and one dry season. Define Physiognomy: The term physiognomy refers to plant appearance. Describe the tropics in terms of rainfall, temperature, food production, productivity, and decay: The tropics are typically extremely warm and wet. The daily temperature fluctuation is greater than yearly (unlike temperate). Tropical soils are typically poor (goes with high rates of decay) and most nutrients are locked up in biomass (plants and animals). In tropical areas there is typically high plant productivity, which means that plants grow very rapidly. Define Forest Structure: Rainforests are characterized by a unique vegetative structure consisting of several vertical layers including the emergent, canopy, understory, immature, and herb layers. What are the five forest layers discussed in class?
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Emergent = Tallest trees (50 M) Canopy = Trees (30-50 M) Understory = Shorter trees (15 – 30 M) Immature layer = Scrubs, plants, growing trees (1-10 M) Herb Layer = Ground layer consisting of herbs, ferns, saplings, and fungi (0-1 M) How does rain come into play? Species diversity, height, and niche diversity decreases with rainfall and seasonality. What is primary forest and secondary forest? A primary forest is an area of forest that has attained great age. A secondary forest is a forest which has re-grown after a major disturbance, such as fire or insect infestation. Define continuous canopy and discontinuous canopy: A continuous canopy is a layer of forest that is long continuous layer that blocks the sun from reaching lower layers. The canopy layer is home to 90% of the organisms living in the rain forest; many seeking the brighter light in the treetops. Who/What is Purgatorius? A tiny rat-like mammal from Montana that is extinct. Purgatorius is believed to be the earliest example of a primate. Define the different epochs: ERA: Cenozoic Epoch Quaternary (1.8 mya to today) Holocene (10,000 years to today) Pleistocene (1.8 mya to 10,000 yrs) Tertiary (65 to 1.8 mya) Pliocene (5.3 – 1.8 mya) Miocene (23.8 – 5.3 mya) Oligocene (33.7 – 23.8 mya) Eocene (54.8 to 33.7 mya) Paleocene (65 – 54.8 mya)
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Who/what are the Plesiodapids?
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