Lab%202%20-%20terms%20and%20concepts - Lab 2 Terms and...

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Lab 2 - Terms and Concepts: (1) systematics – the scientific study of the kinds and diversity of organisms and all relationships among them (2) taxonomy – the theoretical study of classification, including its bases, procedures, and rules (3) classification – the ordering of organisms into groups based on their relationships (4) homology – similarity due to descent from a common ancestor (example: forelimb of a human, whale, and bird – even though the limbs are used differently, the bones show structural correspondence, reflecting common ancestry) (5) analogy or homoplasy – similarity due to the independent evolution of the same trait(s) in both species (example: wings of a bird and fly – even though both structures provide the same function (flight), they are structurally different, reflecting independent evolutionary origin) (6) primitive trait or symplesiomorphy – a trait that has not changed from an ancestral state (example: five digits of the human hand and foot) (7)
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