Review # 1 - Answers

Review # 1 - Answers - 1. Who are Linnaeus, Lamarck,...

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1. Who are Linnaeus, Lamarck, Cuvier, Lyell, Mendel; what are they known for? Linnaeus - Laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature , which is the refers to the naming of species. Lamarck - An early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws . Cuvier - Was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology by comparing living animals with fossils. Mendel – Referred to as the “father of modern genetics.” He proved that traits could be inherited through his extensive study of pea plants. 2. What is creationism? Creationism is the belief that humanity , life , the Earth , and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities 3. What is Charles Darwin famous for; define evolution. Darwin provided scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from one or a few common ancestors through the process of natural selection . Evolution is the change in inherited traits of a population from generation to generation. 4. Evolution occurs through the mechanism of natural selection, what are the four underlying principles? o All species are capable of producing more than enough offspring to replace themselves o The environment may affect an individual's chances of survival o Because individuals are not all identical, some may be more likely to survive than others o Those that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive than those that aren’t. 5. Define dominant, recessive, homozygous, and heterozygous when discussing traits.
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Dominant genes show their effect even if there is only one copy of that gene in the pair. For a person to have a recessive disease or characteristic, the person must have the gene on both chromosomes of the pair. Recessive genes are those that cannot necessarily be seen but they are still retained. 6. What is a genotype and phenotype? (Provide some examples) A genotype is the genetic makeup of a specific species. The phenotype is a specie’s physical appearance. 7. Define gene, locus, chromosome, and allele. Genes – Are Mendel’s units of heredity. They are subunits of DNA. Allele – Are the members of a gene pair or group. Locus – The position of a gene on a chromosome. Chromosome  –  Chromosomes are efficient storage units for DNA. 8. What are mitosis and meiosis; what are the differences? Mitosis refers to cellular reproduction where cells can make identical copies of themselves. Meiosis is the process by which reproductive cells are formed. 9. Define mutation; can they be harmful, beneficial, or neutral or all three?
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A mutation is a change in the DNA sequence; the change produces an altered genes. It is very difficult to estimate the proportions of mutations that are harmful, beneficial, or neutral. Many mutations can have lethal consequences. 10. What is genetic drift?
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2009 for the course ANTH 171 taught by Professor Franciswhite during the Spring '09 term at Oregon.

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Review # 1 - Answers - 1. Who are Linnaeus, Lamarck,...

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