Review%20# 1 - Answers

Review%20# 1 - Answers - 1. Who are Linnaeus, Lamarck,...

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1. Who are Linnaeus, Lamarck, Cuvier, Lyell, Mendel; what are they known for? Linnaeus - Laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature , which is the refers to the naming of species. He is known as the “father of modern taxonomy.” Taxonomy refers to the science of finding, describing, and categorizing organisms. Lamarck - An early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws . Cuvier - Was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology by comparing living animals with fossils. Mendel – Referred to as the “father of modern genetics.” He proved that traits could be inherited through his extensive study of pea plants. 2. What is creationism? Creationism is the belief that humanity , life , the Earth , and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities 3. What is Charles Darwin famous for; define evolution. Darwin provided scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from one or a few common ancestors through the process of natural selection . Evolution is the change in inherited traits of a population from generation to generation. 4. Evolution occurs through the mechanism of natural selection, what are the four underlying principles? o All species are capable of producing more than enough offspring to replace themselves o The environment may affect an individual's chances of survival o Because individuals are not all identical, some may be more likely to survive than others o Those that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive than those that aren’t. 5. Define dominant, recessive, homozygous, and heterozygous when discussing traits.
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Dominant genes show their effect even if there is only one copy of that gene in the pair. For a person to have a recessive disease or characteristic, the person must have the gene on both chromosomes of the pair. Recessive genes are those that cannot necessarily be seen but they are still retained. Homozygous refers to an organism that has identical alleles for a single trait, whereas heterozygous refers to an organism that has two different alleles for a single trait. 6. What is a genotype and phenotype? (Provide some examples) A genotype is the genetic makeup of a specific species. The phenotype is a species’ physical appearance. 7. Define gene, locus, chromosome, and allele. Genes – Are Mendel’s units of heredity. They are subunits of DNA. They contribute to the phenotype of an organism. Allele – Are the members of a gene pair or group. An alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Locus
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Review%20# 1 - Answers - 1. Who are Linnaeus, Lamarck,...

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