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Study Guide Midterm 2

Study Guide Midterm 2 - Study Guide Midterm 2 1 What are...

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Study Guide Midterm 2 1. What are the benefits of each of the three types of play? a. Object play : Refers to the familiarity with objects in the environment. The benefits of this type of play include improved “hand”/Eye coordination. b. Locomotor play : Refers to learning the lay of the land. The benefits of this type of play include improved endurance, coordination, physical training, and strength. c. Social play: Refers to learning from others and imitating their actions. The benefits of this type of play include improved social skills and bonding. 2. How does the billfish illustrate the relationship between form (coloration) and sensory systems? 3. What is a neuron? What are its characteristics? A neuron is an electrically excitable cell in the nervous system that processes and transmits information. In vertebrate animals, neurons are the core components of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. Transmits and receives signals. Branched and interconnected. 4. What are the two components of communication in the nervous system? 1. Electrochemical signals = action potentials 2. Synaptic transmission = chemicals carry information between neurons. 5. Terms: action potential, synaptic transmission, neurotransmitter Action Potential: Is the electrochemical signal transmitted by neurons. Synaptic Transmission: Communication between cells (neurons) in the nervous system. Neurotransmitter: A chemical substance that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse. 6. What is the physiological basis of habituation in the nervous system ? ...of memory? Habituation refers to a species that no longer reacts to a repeated harmless stimuli. At the physiological level the cause of habituation occurs because the sensory neuron releases less neurotransmitter as a result of repeated stimulation. 7. What is important about selective processing? Give an example. Selective processing refers to the process by which many species can distinguish between various stimuli. Example: Common toads use visual information to distinguish between prey and predators.
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8. Look at the bluethroat study on the connection between sensory ability and reproductive success. Blue throats use UV reflection which is important in attracting mates 9. Describe the involvement of the nervous system in the escape response in moth. 10. What are mirror neurons? A mirror neuron is a neuron which fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another animal. Thus, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of another animal, as though the observer were itself acting. 11. Given the costs, why do animals disperse from their natal territory? To follow food Because of resource limitation Competition may be reduced by moving 12. What is function of “social dispersal”?
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