chapter_5_Student_SP07_6perpage

chapter_5_Student_SP07_6perpage - Contents 5- 1 5- 2 5- 3...

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CHM 25 SP07 LU 1 CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 1 of 47 Chapter 5: Introduction to Reactions in Aqueous Solutions CHM 25 Spring 2007 Dr. Berk & Dr. Koel CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 2 of 47 Contents 5-1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions 5-2 Precipitation Reactions 5-3 Acid-Base Reactions 5-4 Oxidation-Reduction: Some General Principles 5-5 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 5-6 Oxidizing and Reducing Agents 5-7 Stoichiometry of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Titrations CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 3 of 47 5.1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions Water Inexpensive Can dissolve a vast number of substances Many substances dissociate into ions Aqueous solutions are found everywhere Seawater Living systems CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 4 of 47 Electrolytes Some solutes can dissociate into ions. Electric charge can be carried. CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 5 of 47 Types of Electrolytes Weak electrolyte partially dissociates. Fair conductor of electricity. CH 3 CO 2 H(aq) CH 3 CO 2 - (aq) + H + (aq) Strong electrolyte dissociates completely. Good electrical conduction. MgCl 2 (s) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) Non-electrolyte does not dissociate. Poor conductor of electricity. CH 3 OH(aq) CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 6 of 47 Which of the following is probably the poorest electrical conductor? 1. 0.5 M K 2 SO 4 2. 0.5 M CaCl 2 3. 0.5 M HF 4. 0.5 M CH 3 OH 5. 0.5 M NH 3
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CHM 25 SP07 LU 2 CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 7 of 47 Solvation: The Hydrated Proton CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 8 of 47 MgCl 2 (s) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) (aq) + 2 Cl [Mg 2+ ] = 0.0050 M [Cl - ] = 0.0100 M [MgCl 2 ] = 0 M ] = 0.0100 M Relative Concentrations in Solution In 0.0050 M MgCl 2 Stoichiometry is important! CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 9 of 47 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3 CO(g) 2 Fe(l) + 3 CO 2 (g) Hematite is converted to iron in a blast furnace. 2 Fe(l) + 3 CO (s) + 3 CO(g) + 3 CO CO(g) is oxidized to carbon dioxide. Fe 3+ is reduced to metallic iron. 5-4 Oxidation-Reduction: Some General Principles Oxidation and reduction always occur together. CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 10 of 47 Oxidation State Changes Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3 CO(g) 2 Fe(l) + 3 CO 2 (g) 3+ 2- 2+ 2- 4+ 2- 0 Assign oxidation states: CO(g) is oxidized to carbon dioxide. Fe 3+ is reduced to metallic iron. CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 11 of 47 Thermite Reaction Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2 Al(s) Al 2 O 3 (s) + 2 Fe(l) CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 12 of 47 Oxidation and Reduction Oxidation O.S. of some element increases in the reaction. Electrons are on the right of the equation Reduction O.S. of some element decreases in the reaction. Electrons are on the left of the equation.
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CHM 25 SP07 LU 3 CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 13 of 47 A Redox Reaction REDOX = reduction & oxidation REDOX = reduction & oxidation Corrosion of aluminum Corrosion of aluminum 2 Al(s) + 3 Cu 2+ 2+ (aq) --- > 2 Al 3+ 3+ (aq) + 3 Cu(s) CHM 25 SP07 LU Slide 14 of 47 Oxidation and Reduction Half-Reactions A reaction represented by two half-reactions.
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2009 for the course CHEM 025 taught by Professor X during the Spring '06 term at Lehigh University .

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chapter_5_Student_SP07_6perpage - Contents 5- 1 5- 2 5- 3...

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