Ch. 5 Notes - Signal-to-Noise Ratio o Equals mean divided...

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Signal-to-Noise Ratio o Equals mean divided by standard deviation o It becomes impossible to detect a signal when this ratio is about 2-3 Bandwidth o The frequency interval over which a measurement is made o The absolute frequency interval is called the pass band Sources of Noise o Chemical noise Arises from undetected variations in temperature or pressure, fluctuations in relative humidity, vibrations, changes in light intensity, and laboratory fumes o Instrumental Noise Noise comes from each component of an instrument 4 types of noise: Thermal noise Cause by thermal agitation of electrons or other charge carriers Disappears only at absolute zero Can be decreased by narrowing bandwidth o However, as bandwidth is narrower, instrument is slower to respond to measurement and more time is required Independent of frequency itself (sometimes called white noise) Shot noise Encountered whenever electrons or other charged particles cross a junction
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