Lec2JCL_W2009 - Bio 305 Lecture 2: Single gene segregation...

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Bio 305 Lecture 2: Single gene segregation and the chromosomal theory Jan 12, 2009 Dr. Long Required reading: Pre-lecture reading below, including specified book pages Optional further reading: Chapter 2 (p. 31-33, 37-57) Recommended end of chapter problems: Chapter 2 (13, 14, 17, 19, 20 - 23, 25, 26, 27a, 28, 32 - 34, 36) Vocabulary: allele anaphase addition rule backcross cell cycle character or trait or property chi-squared test chromatid cross dominant dyad event first filial generation (F1) or F1 gamete (or “spore” in yeast) heterozygote homozygote independence interphase meiocyte meiosis metaphase Law of equal segregation mitosis monohybrid (or hybrid) mutagenesis null allele null hypothesis probability product rule p-value parental generation (P) prophase pure (or true-breeding) line recessive second filial generation (F2) screen selection self or self-cross sister chromatids telophase testcross tetrad (or “ascus” in yeast) zygote Learning Goals: Based on the reading and lecture material from lecture 2, you need to be able to: 1. Describe how a geneticist “dissects” a phenotype by genetic analysis. 2. Recognize the parental, F 1 and F 2 generations 3. Diagram crosses from self-fertilization and cross-fertilization (including F 1 and F 2 ) 4. Describe the law of equal segregation 5. Use the law of equal segregation to predict ratios of offspring in diploid crosses 6. Use a chi-squared test to determine whether observed data is consistent with a null hypothesis. 7. Draw the location of chromosomes, genes and alleles during interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase in cells undergoing mitosis and meiosis for haploids and diploids. This includes chromosome complement of the starting and ending cells in each case. 8. Explain how meiosis explains Mendel's law of equal segregation Lecture 2 1
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Pre-lecture reading Lecture 2, Jan 12, 2009 2.1. Detective work: Figuring out what genes do Genes carry the hereditary information in all living things. A major goal of genetics is to learn how genes store information, and how genes contribute to the development and functioning of the whole organism. The human genome contains ~25,000 genes. These genes contain information that directs the development of a single cell zygote into a complex, multi-cellular human being. They also contain information that is used for physiological activity throughout one’s life. Finding a human gene that affects a specific phenotype is an enormous task for several reasons. 1) There are too many genes and phenotypes to test all possible combinations. 2) Often, many genes contribute to the same phenotype, and conversely, often the same gene contributes to many phenotypes. 3) Every gene is regulated by other genes so that it is difficult to separate out simple paths of cause and effect. The search for genes with specific functions is called gene discovery . For the past 100 years geneticists have discovered genes by choosing a
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Lec2JCL_W2009 - Bio 305 Lecture 2: Single gene segregation...

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