Lec11JCL_W2009 - Bio 305 Lecture 11: Interactions between...

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Lecture 10 1 Bio 305 Lecture 11: Interactions between alleles and genes Feb 12, 2008 Dr. Long Required reading: Pre-lecture reading below reading: Chapter 6 (p. 221-230, 235-247) Relevant end of chapter problems: Chapter 6 (3, 5-20, 23, 25-50) Course pack problems: 44-54 Vocabulary: accumulation analysis additive (independent) interaction allelic series (multiple alleles) biosynthetic pathway codominance complementary (cooperative) interaction complementary enzymes complementation test complete (full) dominance conditional allele conditional lethal convergent pathways developmental pathway divergent pathways dominant negative mutation (or allele) double mutants epistasis epistatic interaction expressivity gain-of-function allele haploinsufficient haplosufficient heterokaryon incomplete dominance independent interaction lethal allele loss-of-function allele multimeric enzyme neofunctional allele null allele one-gene-one-enzyme hypothesis one-gene-one-polypeptide hypothesis penetrance pleiotropic allele pleiotropy recessive lethal redundant interactions regulatory mutation restrictive temperature saturated mutagenesis signal transduction pathway structural mutation supplementation analysis suppression suppressor temperature sensitive (ts) alleles wild-type allele Learning Goals: Based on the reading and lecture material from lecture 11, you need to be able to: 1. Recognize different types of alleles (e.g. gain-of-function, loss-of-function, null, neofunctional, conditional lethal, conditional allele, recessive lethal) 2. Describe dominance relationships between alleles (e.g. complete dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance) 3. Represent alleles with notation that does not indicate dominance 4. Recognize pleiotropic effects of genes 5. Explain dominance in terms of haplosufficiency and haploinsufficiency. 6. Predict expected genotypic and phenotypic ratios for crosses involving pairs of genes showing the following types of interactions: independence, redundancy, complementary, epistasis, suppression
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Lecture 10 2 7. Recognize variable penetrance and expressivity in phenotypic and genetic data. 8. Describe the experiments that lead to the discovery of the one-gene-one-polypeptide hypothesis. 9. Deduce the structure of linear and branched biochemical pathways based on accumulation and/or supplementation experiments. 10. Determine which steps in a biochemical pathway are affected by specific mutants. 11. Determine which mutants affect the same gene using complementation testing. 12. Recognize multimeric and complementary enzymes in biochemical pathways.
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Lecture 10 3 Pre-lecture reading Lecture 11, Feb 12, 2009 10.1 Introduction: Thus far, we have made a number of simplifying assumptions about how genotypes relate to phenotypes. Specifically, we have assumed that each gene affects only one trait, that each allele is either dominant or recessive (i.e. BB = Bb), and that the phenotypic effects of genotypes at two different genes are completely independent (i.e. AA has the same
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2009 for the course BIO 305 taught by Professor Wittkopp/csankovzski during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Lec11JCL_W2009 - Bio 305 Lecture 11: Interactions between...

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