Lec12JCL_W2009 - Bio 305 Lecture 12: Population genetics...

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Bio 305 Lecture 12: Population genetics February 17, 2009 Dr. Long Required reading: Chapter 17 Relevant end of chapter problems: Chapter 17 (2-4, 7, 10, 11a, 11b, 12a-d, 15, 17, 18) Course-pack problems: Course pack problems 57 - 61 Vocabulary: allele frequency assortative mating balancing selection equilibrium distribution founder effect genetic drift gene flow gene pool genotype frequency functional mutation Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium heterozygote advantage heterozygosity homozygosity inbreeding natural selection negative selection polymorphic population population genetics positive selection random union of gametes rare alleles selection selective sweep silent mutation Learning Goals: Based on the reading and lecture material from lecture 25, you need to be able to: 1. Describe what the field of population genetics studies, and why it is important. 2. Calculate allele frequencies from genotype frequencies. 3. Calculate the expected genotype frequencies from allele frequencies by using the principle of random union of gametes. 4. State the assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. 5. Predict how different evolutionary processes affect genetic variation in populations. Lecture 12 1
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Pre-lecture reading Lecture 12, February 17, 2009 12.1 The realm of population genetics : Population genetics is the branch of genetics that deals with variation. The origin, transmission, and consequences of variation are all topics of concern to population geneticists. Population genetics is an experimental and observational science with a rich set of guiding principles. Modern population genetics uses advanced mathematics. However, the mathematics for undergraduate biology majors suffices to grasp the basic concepts. This course strives to use the simplest possible mathematics without giving up the precision or rigor of the field. Populations in the dictionary sense are groups of people that share a common attribute or set of attributes. The members of a population do not need to be the same in every way, and variation within a population is often the target of study. Population geneticists are concerned with a special kind of population. Hereafter, we will use the term population only in the following genetic sense. A genetic population consists of individuals who belong to the same breeding community. Some members of a genetic population cannot, or will not, actually breed with each other because of random chance or the limitations imposed by sex or lifecycle stage, but the breeding community concept is fundamental to the field. Four main categories of process govern the amount and pattern of variation in populations. The first category, mutation, operates at the level of the DNA molecule. Errors made replicating DNA are a major source of new mutations. The second category, random sampling occurs at many levels. The most important of these is cell division. Reduction division in meiosis ensures that each gamete possesses a random sample of the alleles in the genotype of the progenitor cell. The third category, mating system, operates at the levels of social behavior and ecology.
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2009 for the course BIO 305 taught by Professor Wittkopp/csankovzski during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Lec12JCL_W2009 - Bio 305 Lecture 12: Population genetics...

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