Lec14JCL_W2009 - Bio 305 Lecture 14 Evolutionary genetics...

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Lecture 27 1 Bio 305 Lecture 14: Evolutionary genetics March 3, 2009 Dr. Long Required reading: Pre-lecture reading below, including specified book pages Optional further reading: Chapter 19 (p. 694 - 710) Relevant end of chapter problems: Chapter 19 (4, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 20) Vocabulary: allelic replacement allopatric speciation cis -regulatory sequences (enhancers) common ancestry conservation convergence divergence Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility degeneration duplication/divergence/complementation (DDC) model enhancer gene duplication homology homolog immunohistochemistry in situ hybridization introgression neofunctionalization ortholog parallel evolution paralog parsimony polyploidy (or whole genome duplication) positive selection post-zygotic isolation pre-zygotic isolation reporter gene rescue experiment subfunctionalization speciation speciation gene sympatric speciation transformation transgenic Learning Goals: Based on the reading and lecture material from lecture 27, you need to be able to: 1. Design an experiment to determine whether protein function is conserved between species. 2. Design an experiment to determine whether gene expression and cis-regulation is conserved between species. 3. Provide at least one example of a study demonstrating the divergence of protein function 4. Provide at least one example of a study demonstrating the divergence of gene expression 5. Explain the possible fates of genes after gene duplication according to the DDC model 6. Diagram and explain the Dobzhansky-Muller model of incompatibilities 7. Provide at least two lines of evidence supporting a common ancestry of all animals 8. Explain why it is more difficult to locate genetic changes in gene regulation that affect gene expression than genetic changes that affect protein function.
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Lecture 27 2 Pre-lecture reading Lecture 14, March 3, 2009 27.1 Introduction: Darwin gave the first modern explanation for evolution. Darwin's theory of evolution was unique because it begins with the variation that exists among members within the same species, and proposes a way to transform this variation into the variation between species. Darwin’s theory does not require an external force such as a deity to direct species change. Darwin’s book “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” is lengthy and written in difficult 19 th century prose. Darwin presented his theory most succinctly in a series of logical arguments (if / then statements) that appear at the end of chapter 4. I have paraphrased these below as a series of postulates and deductions. P The capacity for an organism to reproduce exceeds its opportunity to reproduce. This creates competition to reproduce among individuals. P
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2009 for the course BIO 305 taught by Professor Wittkopp/csankovzski during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Lec14JCL_W2009 - Bio 305 Lecture 14 Evolutionary genetics...

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