240_l02 - Copy - The Gas Laws Section 1.2 (7th and 8th...

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The Gas Laws Section 1.2 (7th and 8th editions) Individual Gases Boyle’s Law Charles’ Law Perfect (Ideal) Gas Equation Mixtures of Gases Dalton’s Law Mole Fractions Last updated: Sept. 11, 2007; minor edits on slides 3, 9
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pV ' constant p % 1 V , V % 1 p Boyle’s Law Robert Boyle, (1627-91), who was an “experimental philosopher” in the early years of the Royal Society, made a very important contribution in developing a description of the ideal gas (also developed ideas about vacuum, atomic nature of matter, etc.) In 1661, he showed that to a very good approximation that for a constant amount of gas at a fixed temperature: The pressure of a sample is inversely proportional to its volume, and the volume of a sample is inversely proportional to pressure
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Boyle & Hooke Boyle did thousands of experiments on air, due to the invention of an air pump by his assistant, Robert Hooke . Boyle was prolific, studying not only the “elastic properties of air,” but writing extensively on the existence of vacuum, the necessity of air for burning flames, and the corpuscular nature of matter. Hg was poured into the column (at T) and air was trapped in the sealed end. When the pressure exerted by the Hg was doubled, Boyle found that the volume of trapped air would reduce by half - leading to the discovery of Boyle’s (or Mariotte’s) Law: pV = k at constant T
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Isotherms: p vs. V Here are some plots depicting Boyle’s Law. Each plotted line corresponds to a different temperature, and are known as isotherms , as they depict the other variables of the state function at a constant temperature: For plots of p vs. V , the isotherms are hyperbolas (i.e., plot of y as function of x when xy = constant) For plots of p vs. 1/ V , the isotherms are linear
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Rationalizing Boyle’s Law
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2009 for the course CHEM 260 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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240_l02 - Copy - The Gas Laws Section 1.2 (7th and 8th...

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