240_l05 - Introduction to Thermodynamics Chapter 2 of...

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Introduction to Thermodynamics Sections 2.1-2.2 of Atkins (7th and 8th editions) Basic Concepts Work Heat Energy The First Law of Thermodynamics - Conservation of Energy Chapter 2 of Atkins: The First Law: Concepts Last updated: Sept. 21, 2007 (slide 15 - minor changes)
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Introduction to Thermodynamics Thermodynamics : Study of static (i.e., stationary) states of matter and how they differ from one another in terms of energetic quantities. Thermodynamics gives us a set of rules which applies to any object or set of objects independent of what those objects are, what they were previously, or what they will be in the future. There are some (relatively) simple assumptions and definitions, and a mathematical framework available, which allows scientists and engineers to take very complex situations and reduce them to relatively simple problems. Applications: Heating and cooling buildings Engine efficiency Batteries (chemical work) Biological energy transfer Plant/factory design Insulators and conductors
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Introduction to Thermodynamics Thermodynamics : The study of patterns of energy change, where thermo refers to heat, and dynamics refers to patterns of change (a) energy conversion (b) directions of change and molecular stability U p = mgh U p + U e U e heat, sound , light upon impact (a) Protein structure and folding (b)
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Systems and Surroundings System : The object or region of interest Surroundings : Everything outside of the system (we do our measuring in the surroundings) The definition of the system is very dependent upon the boundaries which separate the system the the surroundings - i.e., can energy , which is the capacity to do work, be transferred between the system and surroundings Open : Matter can go in and out of the system Closed : Matter cannot go in and out of the system Isolated System : Closed system with no thermal or mechanical contact with the outside world (this is an ideal system )
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Work, Heat and Energy Work : A form of energy which can transfer in and out of a system, that is stored in the organized motion of molecules. Work is done when an object is moved against some opposing force Heat : A form of energy which can transfer in and out of a system, that is stored in the random motion ( thermal motion ) of molecules. If an energy difference of a system results from a temperature difference between it and its surroundings, energy has been transferred as heat Energy: Capacity to do work - the energy of a system can be changed by work and heat Units : joules (J) or for molar energy kJ mol -1
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Thermodynamic Definitions of Work & Heat Work :W o r k ( w
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240_l05 - Introduction to Thermodynamics Chapter 2 of...

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