hum_130_appendix_g[1] - Axia College Material Appendix G...

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Axia College Material Appendix G Eastern Religion Elements Matrix Hinduism Buddhism Confucianism Daoism Countries of origin THERE IS NO SINGLE FOUNDER OF HINDUISM. IT ORIGINATED IN INDIA IN THE NEOLITHIC AGE(5500-2600). ACCORDING TO SCHOLARS, THE EVOLUTION OF HINDUISM MAY BE DIVIDED INTO THREE PERIODS: THE ANCIENT (6500 BCE-1000 AD), THE MEDIEVAL (1000-1800 AD), AND THE MODERN (1800 AD TO PRESENT). HINDUISM IS COMMONLY THOUGHT TO BE THE OLDEST RELIGION IN THE HISTORY OF HUMAN CIVILIZATION ORIGINATED IN INDIA TO COUNTER THE THREAT OF HINDU BRAHMANNI CAL ORDER GAUTAM BUDDHA (563 BC-483 BC) WAS THE FOUNDER OF BUDDHISM, WHO WAS BORN IN LUMBINI IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE HIMALAYAS. BUDDHISM ORIGINATED IN INDIA , AFTER BUDDHA FOUND ENLIGHTENMENT IN BOGHGAYA IN INDIA WAS FOUNDED BY CONFUCIUS WHO WAS BORN IN LU, CHINA IN 551 BC. THE VARIOUS STATES IN CHINA WERE AT WAR WITH EACH OTHER DURING THE ZHOU DYNASTY. TO COUNTER THIS CONFUCIUS SPREAD THE ORDER OF HARMONY IS AN INDIGENOUS RELIGION OF CHINA. IT ORIGINATED AT THE END OF EASTERN HAN DYNASTY (25-220 AD) AND IS BASED ON ANCIENT CHINESE WITCHCRAFT AND FORMULAS OF IMMORTALITY. THE ANCESTORS OF THE CHINESE WORSHIPPED NATURE AND SPIRIT. DAOISM COMBINED THE DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF BUDDHISM AND CONFUCIANISM AND GRADUALLY MERGED WITH TRADITIONAL SPIRIT WORSHIP, Historical figures and events HINDUISM DATE BACK TO THE LATE NEOLITHIC PERIOD (5500- 2600BCE) MODERN HINDUISM GREW OUT OF THE VEDAS, THE OLDEST OF WHICH IS THE RIGVEDA (1700-1100BC) . THE EPIC POEMS RAMAYANA AND MAHABHARATA WERE WRITTEN ROUGHLY FROM 500-100BCE. ADI SHANKARA FOLLOWED THE ABSTRACT CONCEPT OF BRAHMAN. HINDUISM UNDERWENT PROFOUND CHANGES IN LARGE PART DUE TO THE INFLUENCE OF THE PROMINENT TEACHERS RAMANUJA, MADHVA, AND CHAITANYA WHO FOUNDED THE BHAKTI MOVEMENT WHICH BELIEVED IN KRISHNA BUDDHISM CAME INTO EXISTENCE IN INDIA SOME 2,600 YEARS AGO WHEN AN INDIAN PRINCE, SIDDHATTHA, BECAME ENLIGHTENED AND HENCE CAME TO BE KNOWN AS THE BUDDHA, MEANING THE ENLIGHTENED ONE. HIS TEACHINGS ARE PRESERVED IN BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES KNOWN AS THE TRIPITAKA , WHICH LITERALLY MEANS THE THREE BASKETS, NAMELY THE VINAYA OR VINAYA-PITAKA (MONASTIC RULES), SUTTA OR SUTTANTA- PITAKA (COLLECTION OF THE TEACHINGS OF THE BUDDHA AND HIS DISCIPLES) AND ABHIDHAMMA OR ABHIDHAMMA-PITAKA (HIGHER FROM THE SECOND-CENTURY B.C.E., CONFUCIANISM HAS STRONGLY INFLUENCED CHINESE POLITICAL, AND SOCIAL AND INTELLECTUAL, BEHAVIORS. WHEN THE CHINESE CAME INTO CONTACT WITH INDIAN BUDDHISM AROUND THE FIRST CENTURY C.E., THE PROGRAMMATIC SIDE OF CONFUCIANISM RESPONDED, AND THEY DEVELOPED A SPIRITUAL DISCIPLINE CALLED CH'AN (MEDITATION), WHICH JAPAN ADOPTED AROUND 1200
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2009 for the course MATH gr56 taught by Professor Mrr during the Spring '09 term at École Normale Supérieure.

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hum_130_appendix_g[1] - Axia College Material Appendix G...

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