Direct-link-lan

Direct-link-lan - Direct Link Networks Encoding and Framing...

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1 Csci 232 Computer Networks Direct Link networks 1 Direct Link Networks Encoding and Framing Error Detection/Correction Reliable Transmission will be covered later (with TCP) Media Access Control (Wired) LAN Technologies • Readings Chapter 2 except Section 2.5, which is delayed to the discusson on Transport layer. Csci 232 Computer Networks Direct Link networks 2 Encoding Signals propagate over a physical medium modulate electromagnetic waves (on amplitude, frequency, and phase): the process of encoding source data onto a carrier signal with frequency f_c e.g., vary voltage (amplitude) Encode binary data onto signals e.g., 0 as low signal and 1 as high signal known as Non-Return to zero (NRZ) Bits NRZ 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 Csci 232 Computer Networks Direct Link networks 3 Problems: Consecutive 1s or 0s Low signal (0) may be interpreted as no signal High signal (1) leads to baseline wander Receiver keeps an average of the signal it has seen so far and uses this average to distinguish between low and high signals Unable to recover clock Clocks at the sender and receiver use signal transition to synchronize each other Csci 232 Computer Networks Direct Link networks 4 Alternative Encodings Non-return to Zero Inverted (NRZI) make a transition from current signal to encode a one; stay at current signal to encode a zero solves the problem of consecutive ones • Manchester transmit XOR of the NRZ encoded data and the clock only 50% efficient. Csci 232 Computer Networks Direct Link networks 5 Encodings (cont) • 4B/5B every 4 bits of data encoded in a 5-bit code 5-bit codes selected to have no more than one leading 0 and no more than two trailing 0s – thus, never get more than three consecutive 0s resulting 5-bit codes are transmitted using NRZI achieves 80% efficiency Csci 232 Computer Networks Direct Link networks 6 Encodings (cont) Bits NRZ Clock Manchester NRZI 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
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