Study Guide Exam 2

Study Guide Exam 2 - Study Guide Exam 2 Abnormal Psychology...

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Study Guide Exam 2 Abnormal Psychology Chapter 4. Distinguish among Fear (present-focused), Anxiety (future-focused), and Panic attacks (alarm response) Know some symptoms of panic attacks and their varieties (e.g, cued, uncued) Fight-flight/sympathetic nervous system Behavioral/cognitive views of anxiety disorders Classical conditioning, operant conditioning Learned responses Appraisals, catastrophic cognitions What is comorbidity and what disorders are often comorbid? Types of anxiety disorders: GAD People with GAD mostly worry about minor, everyday life events, a characteristic that distinguished GAD from other anxiety disorders. Treatments o Biological o Benzodiezapines and antidepressents – paxil, effexor, tofranil Psychological treatments o Cognitive behaviorl treatment Panic Disorder Defining features o Experience of unexpected panic attack o Develop anxiety, worry, or fear about another attack o Behavior is altered as a result, many develop agoraphobia Associated features o Nocturnal panic attacks – 60% panic during deep non-REM sleep o Introceptive/extroceptive avoidance Biological treatments o SSRI’s – relapse rates are high following medication discontinuation o Benzodiezapines Psychological Treatments o Cognitive-behavioral therapies are highly effective Gradual exposure Panic control treatment (PCT) – involving gradual exposure to feared somatic sensations and modification of perceptions and attitudes about them. – most remain better for at least 2 years o No evidence that combined treatment produces better outcome o Best long-term outcome is with cognitive-behavior therapy alone Phobias Defining Features o Extreme irrational fear of a specific object or situation o Persons will go to great lengths to avoid phobic objects o Most recognize that the fear and avoidance are unreasonable o Markedly interferes with ones ability to function Associated Features
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o 4 subtypes Blood-injury-injection phobia Situational phobias (claustrophobia) Natural environment phobias Animal phobias Biological Treatments o SSRI’s, Tricyclics, MAOI’s o Benzodiezapines Behavioral Treatments o Cognitive behavioral Theapy (CBT) Exposure to freared stimulus Leading to extinction o Exposure therapy Systempatic Desenitization – very successful Relaxed on training Anxiety higherachry Invivo vs imagined exposure Show stimulus and induce relaxation until they can move up a step on the hierarchy o Flooding Starts with the most feared situation (#1 on hierarchy) and eventually their anxiety will subside Can set up for falure and reduce self efficacy (self ability) Social phobia Defining Features o Extreme and irrational fear in social/performance situations o Markedly interferes with ones ability to function o Often avoid social situations or endure them with great distress o Generalized subtype – affects many social situations
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Study Guide Exam 2 - Study Guide Exam 2 Abnormal Psychology...

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