BLRB02 - Business Law and the Regulation of Business...

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Unformatted text preview: Business Law and the Regulation of Business Regulation Chapter 2: Business Ethics Chapter By Richard A. Mann & Barry S. Roberts Topics Covered in this Chapter Topics A. Law versus Ethics B. Ethical Theories C. Ethical Standards in Business D. Ethical Responsibilities of Ethical Business Business Definitions Definitions Ethics — study of what is right or good for human beings. for s Business Ethics — study of what is right and good in a business setting. and s Ethical Theories s Ethical Ethical individuals look to a central authority or set of rules to guide them in ethical decision making. decision s Ethical Relativism — actions must be Ethical judged by what individuals subjectively feel is right or wrong for themselves. feel s Situational Ethics — one must judge Situational a person's actions by first putting oneself in the actor's situation. oneself Fundamentalism — Ethical Theories Ethical s Utilitarianism — moral actions are those that Utilitarianism produce the greatest net pleasure compared with net pain. with – Act Utilitarianism — assesses each act according Act to whether it maximizes pleasure over pain. to – Rule Utilitarianism — supports rules that on balance produce the greatest pleasure for society. balance s s Cost-Benefit Analysis — quantifies the benefits and costs of alternatives. benefits Deontology— actions must be judged by their actions motives and means as well as their results. motives Social Ethics Theories Social Focus is on a person's obligations to other Focus members in society and also on the individual's rights and obligations within society. society. s Social Egalitarians — believe that society should provide all its members with equal amounts of goods and services regardless of their relative contributions. their s Distributive Justice — stresses equality of opportunity rather than results. opportunity s Libertarians — stress market outcomes as the basis for distributing society's rewards. the s Other Theories Other s Intuitionism — a rational person possesses inherent power to assess the correctness of actions. the s Good Person — individuals should seek out and emulate good role models. models. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Kohlberg’s Levels Levels Preconventional (Childhood) (Childhood) Conventional (Adolescent) Postconventional (Adult) (Adult) Perspective Perspective Self Group Universal Justification Justification Punishment/Reward Punishment/Reward Group Norms Moral Principles Ethical Standards in Business Choosing an Ethical System — Kohlberg's stages of moral development is a widely accepted model. s Corporations as Moral Agents — Because a corporation is a statutorily created entity, it is not clear whether it should be held morally responsible. should s Ethical Responsibilities of Business Business s Regulation of Business — governmental Regulation regulation has been necessary because all the conditions for perfect competition have not been satisfied and free competition cannot by itself achieve other societal objectives. objectives. s Corporate Governance — vast amounts of Corporate wealth and power have become concentrated in a small number of corporations, which are in turn controlled by a small group of corporate officers. corporate Arguments against Social Responsibility Responsibility s Profitability — because corporations are Profitability artificial entities established for profit-making activities, their only social obligation should be to return as much money as possible to shareholders. shareholders. s Unfairness — whenever corporations engage in social activities such as supporting the arts or education, they divert funds rightfully belonging to shareholders and/or employees to unrelated third parties. employees Arguments against Social Responsibility Responsibility s Accountability — a corporation is Accountability subject to less public accountability than public bodies. than s Expertise — although a corporation may have a high level of expertise in selling its goods and services, there is absolutely no guarantee that any promotion of social activities will be carried on with the same degree of competence. competence. Arguments For Social Responsibility Responsibility s The Social Contract —society allows for society The s s the creation of corporations and gives them special rights, including a grant of limited liability, so corporations are responsible to our society. our Less Government Regulation — by taking a proactive role, corporations create a climate of trust and respect that has the effect of reducing government regulation. of Long-Run Profits — corporate involvement in social causes creates goodwill, which simply makes good business sense. simply The Stakeholder Model The Managers Suppliers Corporation Responsible To: Customers Stockholders Community Employees ...
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