Unformatted text preview: Business Law and the Regulation of Business Regulation
Chapter 17: Performance, Breach & Discharge Chapter By Richard A. Mann & Barry S. Roberts Topics Covered in this Chapter Topics
A. Conditions B. Discharge by Performance C. Discharge by Breach D. Discharge by Agreement of the Discharge Parties Parties E. Discharge by Operation of Law Conditions
s s s Definition of a Condition – an event whose happening or nonhappening affects a duty of performance. of Express Condition – contingency explicitly set forth in language. set Satisfaction – express condition making performance contingent upon one party's approval of the other's performance. approval
– Subjective Satisfaction – approval based upon a party's honestly held opinion. party's – Objective Satisfaction – approval based upon whether a reasonable person would be satisfied. whether Conditions
s s s s s Implied-in-Fact Conditions – contingency understood by the parties to be part of the agreement, though not expressed. agreement, Implied-in-Law Conditions – contingency not contained in the contract but imposed by law; also called a constructive condition. also Concurrent Conditions – conditions that are to take place at the same time. to Conditions Precedent – an event that must or must not occur before performance is due. must Conditions Subsequent – an event that terminates a duty of performance. terminates Discharge by Performance
Discharge – termination of a contractual duty. contractual s Performance – fulfillment of a contractual obligation resulting in a discharge. discharge.
s Discharge by Breach
s s s Definition of Breach – a wrongful failure to perform the terms of a contract that gives rise to a right to damages by the injured party. damages Material Breach – nonperformance that significantly impairs the injured party's rights under the contract and discharges the injured party from any further duty under the contract. any Prevention of Performance – one party's substantial interference with or prevention of performance by the other; constitutes a material breach and discharges the other party. breach Discharge by Breach
s s s s Perfect Tender Rule – standard under the UCC that a seller's performance under a sales contract must strictly comply with contractual duties and that any deviation discharges the injured party. deviation Substantial Performance – incomplete performance that does not defeat purpose of the contract; does not discharge injured party but entitles him to damages. discharge Anticipatory Repudiation – an inability or refusal to perform, before due; treated as a breach, allowing the nonrepudiating party to bring suit immediately. the Material Alteration – a material and fraudulent alteration of a written contract by a party to the contract; discharges the entire contract. contract; Discharge by Agreement of Parties Discharge
s s s s Mutual Rescission – an agreement between the parties to terminate their respective duties under the contract. duties Substituted Contract – a new contract accepted by both parties in satisfaction of the parties' duties under the original contract. parties' Accord and Satisfaction – substituted duty under a contract (accord) and the discharge of the prior contractual obligation by performance of the new duty (satisfaction). performance Novation – a substituted contract involving a new third-party promisor or promisee. new Discharge by Operation of Law Discharge
s Impossibility – performance of contract cannot be done. cannot – Subjective Impossibility – the promisor—but not Subjective all promisors—cannot perform; does not discharge the promisor. discharge – Objective Impossibility – no promisor is able to Objective perform; generally discharges the promisor. perform; s s Destruction of Subject Matter –discharges discharges contract if it occurs without the promisor's fault. fault. Subsequent Illegality – if performance becomes illegal or impractical as a result of a legal change, the duty is discharged. legal Discharge by Operation of Law Discharge
s s s s Frustration of Purpose – principal purpose of a contract cannot be fulfilled because of a subsequent event. subsequent Commercial Impracticability – where performance can be accomplished only under unforeseen and unjust hardship, the contract is discharged under the Code and the Restatement. discharged Bankruptcy – discharge available if debtor obtains an order of discharge by the bankruptcy court. court. Statute of Limitations – after the statute of limitations has run, debt is not discharged, but a creditor cannot maintain an action against debtor. creditor Discharge of Contracts
R A fully performs R B materially breaches R A and B agree to substitute C for A R A discharge in bankruptcy A Discharged A Enters into Contract with B R Failure of a condition R Mutual recission of the contract R Substituted contract R Accord and satisfaction R Subsequent illegality of the contract R Impossibility of performance A and B Discharged R B fully performs R A materially breaches R A and B agree to substitute C for B R B discharged in bankruptcy B Discharged ...
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