BLRB33 - Business Law and the Regulation of Business...

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Unformatted text preview: Business Law and the Regulation of Business Regulation Chapter 33: Limited Partnerships and Limited Liability Companies Limited By Richard A. Mann & Barry S. Roberts Topics Covered in this Chapter Topics A. Limited Partnerships B. Limited Liability Companies C. Other Unincorporated Business C. Associations Limited Partnerships Definition of a Limited Partnership – a partnership formed by two or more persons under the laws of a State and having one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. and s Formation – a limited partnership can only be formed by substantial compliance with a State limited partnership statute. partnership s Comparison of General and Limited Partners Limited General Partner Control Limited Partner Has all the rights and Has no right to take part in powers of a partner in a management or control partnership without limited partners Unlimited Limited, unless partner takes part in control or partner’s name is used Is not an agent of the partnership No No Liability Agency Fiduciary Duty Duty of Care Is an agent of the partnership Yes Yes Formation Formation Filing of Certificate – two or more persons must file a signed certificate of limited partnership. limited s Name – inclusion of a limited partner's Name surname in the partnership name in most instances will result in the loss of the limited partner's limited liability. the s Contributions – may be cash, Contributions property, services, or a promise to contribute cash, property, or services. contribute s Defective Formation Defective If no certificate is filed or if the one filed If does not substantially meet the statutory requirements, the formation is defective and the limited liability of the limited partners is jeopardized. limited s Foreign Limited Partnerships – a limited partnership is considered “foreign” in any State other than that in which it was formed. which s Rights Rights s s s A general partner in a limited partnership general has all the rights and powers of a partner in a general partnership. general Control – the general partners have almost exclusive control and management of the limited partnerships; a limited partner who participates in the control of the limited partnership may lose limited liability. partnership Voting Rights – the partnership agreement may grant to all or some general or limited partners the right to vote on any matter. partners Rights Rights Choice of Associates – no person Choice may be added as a general partner or a limited partner without the consent of all partners. all s Withdrawal – a general partner may withdraw from a limited partnership at any time by giving written notice to the other partners; a limited partner may withdraw as provided in the limited partnership certificate. partnership s Assignment of Partnership Interest Interest s s Unless otherwise provided in the partnership Unless agreement, a partner may assign a partnership interest; an assignee may become a limited partner if all other partners consent. partner Profit and Loss Sharing – profits and losses are allocated among the partners as provided in the partnership agreement; if the partnership agreement has no such provision, then profits and losses are allocated on the basis of the contributions each partner actually made. contributions Assignment of Partnership Interest Interest s s s s Distributions –partners share distributions partners of cash or other assets of a limited partnership as provided in the partnership agreement. agreement. Loans –general and limited partners may be general secured or unsecured partnership creditors. secured Information – each partner has the right to inspect and copy the partnership records. inspect Derivative Actions – a limited partner may sue on behalf of a limited partnership if the general partners refuse to bring the action. general Duties and Liabilities Duties s s Duties – general partners owe a duty of care and loyalty (fiduciary duty) to the general partners, the limited partners, and the limited partnership; limited partners do not. partnership; Liabilities – the general partners have unlimited liability; the limited partners have limited liability (liability for partnership obligations only to the extent of the capital that they contributed or agreed to contribute). that Liability of Limited Partners Liability Activity Defective formation Participation in control is substantially the same as powers of a general partner Consequences Unlimited liability to third parties who transacted business before withdrawal or amendment and in good faith believed “equity participant” was a general partner 1976 Act: Unlimited liability to all third parties who transact business with the partnership 1985 Act: Unlimited liability to third parties who transact business with reasonable belief, based on limited partner’s conduct, that limited partner was a general partner 1976 Act: Unlimited liability to those persons who transacted business with actual knowledge of the limited partner’s participation in control 1985 Act: Same as 1985 Act where participation in control is substantially the same as powers of a general partner Unlimited liability to third parties who did not have actual knowledge that she was a limited partner Participation in control is not substantially the same as powers of a general partner Name used with permission Dissolution Dissolution s Causes – the limited partners have neither the right nor the power to dissolve the partnership, except by decree of the court; the following events trigger a dissolution: (1)­the expiration of the time period; (2)­the withdrawal of a general partner, unless all partners agree to continue the business; or (3)­a decree of judicial dissolution. decree Dissolution Dissolution s s Winding Up – unless otherwise provided in the partnership agreement, the general partners who have not wrongfully dissolved the partnership may wind up its affairs. the Distribution of Assets – the priorities for distribution are: (1)­creditors, including partners; (2)­partners and ex­partners for unpaid distributions; (3)­partners for the return of contributions, except as otherwise agreed; and (4)­partners for their partnership interests in the proportions in which they share in distributions, except as agreed. share Limited Liability Companies Definition – a limited liability company is a noncorporate business organization that provides limited liability to all of its owners (members) and permits all of its members to participate in management of the business. of s Formation – the formation of a limited Formation liability company requires substantial compliance with a State's limited liability company statute. company s Formation Formation s s s Filing – the LLC statutes generally require the central filing of articles of organization in a designated State office. designated Name – LLC statutes generally require the name of the LLC to include the words limited liability company or the abbreviation LLC. liability LLC. Contribution – the contribution of a member to a limited liability company may be cash, property, services rendered, a promissory note, or other obligation to contribute cash, property, or to perform services. property, Formation Formation Operating Agreement – the basic contract governing the affairs of a limited liability company and stating the various rights and duties of the members. members. s Foreign Limited Liability Companies Foreign – a limited liability company is considered “foreign” in any State other than that in which it was formed. than s Rights of Members Rights s A member's interest in the LLC member's includes the financial interest (the right to distributions) and the management interest (which consists of all other rights granted to a member by the LLC operating agreement and the LLC statute). statute). Financial Rights Financial s s s Profit and Loss Sharing –iif the operating f agreement makes no other provision, the profits and losses are typically allocated on the basis of the value of members' contributions. contributions. Distributions –iif the operating agreement f does not allocate distributions, they are typically made on the basis of the members' contributions. contributions. Withdrawal – a member may withdraw and demand payment of her interest upon giving the notice specified in the statute or the LLC's operating agreement. operating Management Rights Management s s s Management – in the absence of a contrary agreement, each member has equal rights in the management of the LLC, but LLCs may be managed by any number of the members. be Voting – LLC statutes usually specify the voting rights of members, subject to a contrary provision in a LLC's operating agreement. agreement. Derivative Actions – a member may bring an action on behalf of the LLC to recover a judgment in its favor if the members with authority to bring the action refuse to do so. authority Rights of Members Rights s Assignment of LLC Interest – Unless otherwise provided in the LLC's operating agreement, a member may assign his financial interest in the LLC; an assignee of a financial interest in an LLC may acquire the other rights by being admitted as a member of the company if all the remaining members consent or the operating agreement so provides. provides. Duties Duties s s Manager-managed LLCs – the managers of a manager­managed LLC have a duty of care and loyalty; usually, members of a manager­managed LLC have no duties to the LLC or its members by reason of being members. members. Member-managed LLCs – members of Member-managed member­managed LLCs have the same duties of care and loyalty that managers have in manager­managed LLCs. have Comparison of Member­and Manager­Managed LLCs Manager­Managed Member of MemberManaged LLC Manager of ManagerManaged LLC Control Liability Agency Fiduciary Duty Duty of Care Full Limited Is an agent of LLC Yes Yes Member of ManagerManaged LLC None Limited Is not an agent of LLC No No Liabilities Liabilities s No member or manager of a limited No liability company is obligated personally for any debt, obligation, or liability of the limited liability company solely by reason of being a member or acting as a manager of the limited liability company. company. Dissolution Dissolution s An LLC will automatically dissolve upon: An (1)­in some States, the dissociation of a member, (2)­the expiration of the LLC's agreed duration or the happening of any of the events specified in the articles, (3)­the written consent of all the members, or (4)­a decree of judicial dissolution. dissolution. Dissolution Dissolution s Dissociation – means that a member has ceased to be associated with the company through voluntary withdrawal, death, incompetence, expulsion, or bankruptcy. bankruptcy. Dissolution Dissolution s Distribution of Assets – the default rules for distributing assets of a LLC are (1)­to creditors, including members and managers, except with respect to liabilities for distributions; (2)­to members and former members in satisfaction of liabilities for unpaid distributions; (3)­to members for the return of their contributions; and (4)­to members for their limited liability company interests in the proportions in which members share in distributions. share Limited Liability Partnership Limited s A general partnership that, by making general the statutorily required filing, limits the liability of its partners for some or all of the partnership's obligations. the Limited Liability Partnership Limited Formalities – most statutes require only a majority of the partners to authorize registration as an LLP; others require unanimous approval. require s Designation – the name of the LLP must include the words limited liability partnership or registered limited liability partnership partnership or the abbreviation LLP. partnership LLP. s Liability Limitation Liability s Some statutes limit liability only for ome negligent acts; others limit liability to any partnership tort or contract obligation that arose from negligence, malpractice, wrongful acts, or misconduct committed by any partner, employee, or agent of the partnership; some provide limited liability for all debts and obligations of the partnership. partnership. Liability Limitations in LLPs Liability LLP Statutes First Generation Limited Liability Negligent acts Unlimited Liability • All other obligations • Wrongful partner • Supervising partner Second Generation Tort and contract • All other obligations obligations arising from • Wrongful partner wrongful acts • Supervising partner Third Generation All obligations • Wrongful partner • Supervising partner Limited Liability Limited Partnership Partnership s A llimited partnership in which the imited liability of the general partners has been limited to the same extent as in an LLP. limited ...
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