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chap03 - The Evolution of Telecommunications Technology and...

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The Evolution of Telecommunications Technology and Policy Chapter 3
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Objectives In this chapter, you will learn to: Describe the growth of telecommunications technology since the late 19th century Identify key inventions and their current equivalents in telephony technology Explain the impetus for and impact of AT&T’s divestiture Discuss how government has influenced the way in which consumers obtain telecommunications services List current policy trends that affect the telecommunications industry
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Early Signaling and Telegraphy Semaphore - a type of signaling, in which visual cues represent letters or words. Morse code - the transmission of a series of short and long pulses (dots and dashes) that represented characters. Duplexing - simultaneously transmitting a signal in both directions along the same wire. Multiplexing - simultaneously transmitting an indeterminate number of multiple signals over one circuit.
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Early Signaling and Telegraphy
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Telephone Technology
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Telephone Technology
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Telephone Technology
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Telephone Technology In 1913, N.J. Reynolds, a Western Electric engineer, developed a better automatic switch, the crossbar switch . It used a grid of horizontal and vertical bars, with electromagnets at their ends. The horizontal bars could rotate up and down to connect to specific vertical bars and thus complete circuits. Time division switching - a transmission technique in which samples from multiple incoming lines are digitized, then each sample is issued to the same circuit, in a predetermined sequence, before finally being transmitted to the correct outbound line.
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Telephone Technology Space division switching - manipulating the physical space between two lines, thereby closing a circuit to connect a call. Local switching center (often called a local office) - a place where multiple phone lines from homes and businesses in one geographic area converge and terminate. Tandem switching center - an exchange where lines from multiple local offices converge and terminate. Toll switching center - an exchange where lines from multiple tandem switching centers converge and terminate.
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Telephone Technology
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Wireless Technology Telegraphs and telephones are examples of wireline, or wire-bound technology, because they rely on physically connected wires to transmit and receive signals. Wireless technology - relies on the atmosphere to transmit and receive signals.
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Wireless Technology
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Wireless Technology Vacuum tube - a sealed container made of glass, metal, or ceramic, that contains, in a vacuum, a charged plate that transmits current to a filament.
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